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本帖由 99812018-05-04 发布。版面名称:华人论坛

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    https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/17/us-...a-on-hiatus-commerce-secretary-ross-says.html

    US trade talks with China on ‘hiatus,’ Commerce Secretary Ross says

    • Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said Wednesday that U.S.-China trade talks are on hiatus.
    • “It appears as though we may be in something of a hiatus now,” Ross said during an interview on CNBC.
    • President Donald Trump, in an appearance on Fox Business Network shortly afterward, said he did not believe the two countries were ready to start talking again.
    Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said Wednesday that U.S.-China trade talks are on hiatus.

    “I don’t know that I would call it a continued impasse. We are where we are. And in any negotiation, there are ups and downs,” Ross said. “There are hiatuses and there are much more active periods. So, it appears as though we may be in something of a hiatus now.”


    President Donald Trump, in an appearance on Fox Business Network shortly afterward, said he did not believe the two countries were ready to start talking again.

    “They want to make a deal. I said you guys are not ready yet,” Trump said. “You’re just not ready because look, they have been taking $500 billion a year out of our country. It is time that we stopped.”

    The U.S. and China, the world’s two largest economies, have been engaged for months in a trade dispute. On Sunday, the president’s top economic advisor Larry Kudlow said the relationship between the two countries “has not been positive lately.”

    In August, a senior administration official told CNBC that there had been “zero” engagement with China despite reports that the two countries were ramping up talks.

    American and Chinese officials have suggested that the leaders of the two countries may be able to advance talks at the upcoming G-20 summit in Argentina. Asked about that possibility, Ross suggested it was unlikely that much would be accomplished there.


    “Meetings of world leaders at the G-20 never get into huge amounts of detail,” Ross said.

    “You can’t do a multi-thousand page trade agreement in an hour,” he added.

    Ross’s comments came as the Trump administration announced that it intended to pull out of a 144-year-old United Nations postal agreement that the administration said gave countries, including China, unfair advantages over domestic shippers including the U.S. Postal Service.

    During the interview, Ross also suggested that China may have had political motivations for killing the $44 billion deal between American chipmaker Qualcomm and NXP over the summer. Qualcomm was planning to acquire the company, but terminated the deal after Chinese regulators did not grant approval.

    “The Chinese say that was not related to trade disputes, but you never know,” Ross said. “All I know is everybody else approved it, but they turned it down.”

    Chinese officials have said the decision not to sign off on the deal was limited to the enforcement of antitrust laws, and had nothing to do with the United States.

    Asked to weigh in on the controversy over the missing Saudi Arabian dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi, Ross declined to “get out ahead of the rest of the U.S. government.”

    “Let’s just see how it plays out,” he said.

    Turkish authorities have accused the Saudis of killing and dismembering Khashoggi when he visited the Saudi consulate in Istanbul earlier this month. The Saudi government has denied involvement in the alleged killing.
     
  2. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    您再读读, 美国不觉得美国邮寄到中国的邮费不合理, 是中国邮寄到美国中美邮局分利不均需要改变。

    也可以说, 川普在暗助亚马讯大战阿里巴巴

    代购应该只跟中国进口关税有关,死不了也做不大
     
  3. 9981

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    中国晋江被美国商务部禁止之前后故事

    https://site.6parker.com/finance/index.php?app=forum&act=threadview&tid=14097284

    美国芯片机密遭窃案背后,中国的科技大国雄心

    中国晋江——随着收网行动接近尾声,一家持有美国技术秘密的台湾芯片制造公司的工程师们竭力掩盖一个猖狂的商业间谍案。6parker.com


    在警察突击搜查该公司的办公室时,人力资源部门的工作人员提醒工程师们赶紧把证据处理掉。他们把U盘、笔记本电脑和文件交给一名低级别员工,后者把它们藏到了自己的储物柜里。然后,她带着一名工程师的电话从前门走了出去。6parker.com


    这些设备中包含的东西比黄金和珠宝更有价值:美国公司美光科技(Micron Technology)的微芯片设计文件,这些微芯片帮助推动了全球数字革命。根据台湾当局的说法,这些设计将被送往中国大陆,在那里,它们将帮助一家价值57亿美元、数座飞机库大小的新微芯片工厂投产。6parker.com


    中国有着雄心勃勃的经济改革计划,并打算在未来技术上与美国等国展开针锋相对的竞争。美光科技公司的法庭文件以及台湾警方讲述了两年前的盗窃以及去年的突击搜查情况,反映了中国这些努力的黑暗面——并部分解释了为什么美国要与中国打贸易战。6parker.com


    一项名为“中国制造2025”的计划号召该国成为半导体、机器人和电动汽车等一系列行业的全球竞争者。中国在创新以及从国外购买技术方面正投入巨资。6parker.com


    华盛顿的政治人士和很多美国公司指责中国为达目的采取恐吓和赤裸裸的盗窃等手段。他们认为,爱达荷企业美光科技的案子是这种侵犯行为的一个典型例子。该公司的记忆芯片为手机和电脑提供了存储和快速检索信息的关键能力。6parker.com


    三年前,美光拒绝了一家中国国有企业230亿美元的收购要约。如今,美光在中国面临诉讼和调查,中国市场占其200亿美元年销售额的一半左右。6parker.com


    据台湾官员以及美光科技的诉讼称,之后,美光成为台湾那起盗窃的目标。美光起诉的对象包括雇佣那些工程师的台湾公司联电(UMC)以及它认为想获得该技术的中国公司——福建晋华集成电路公司。6parker.com


    业内专家表示,其他公司也可能面临着与美光类似的困境。6parker.com


    桑福德-伯恩斯坦公司(Sanford Bernstein)的分析师马克·纽曼(Mark Newman)表示,武汉的一家隶属于长江存储科技公司的国家支持的工厂将生产与韩国芯片制造商三星(Samsung)设计的芯片类似的芯片。6parker.com


    “长江存储的芯片几乎和三星的一模一样,很明显他们在抄袭,”纽曼说。6parker.com


    三星的发言人拒绝置评,长江存储的高层也没有回复置评电话。今年早些时候,中国国家主席习近平参观了长江存储的生产设施,这是中国领导人对这些项目表示支持的一种方式。6parker.com


    中国以经济生存为由对“中国制造2025”进行辩护。它依然依赖其他国家的芯片和软件等关键产品,中国正在为本土实验室和希望在未来占据一席之地的企业家提供资金。6parker.com


    但特朗普政府官员在今年早些时候的一份报告中,讲述了中国官员有时如何帮助中国企业从美国企业获得知识产权,包括在能源、电子、软件和航空电子等领域。6parker.com


    担心“中国制造2025”的美国企业集团将美光科技作为论据。对美光的陈述依据的是台湾和美国的法律文件。6parker.com


    2015年,获得国家大力支持的中国芯片制造商清华紫光的代表与美光集团接洽,提出收购要约,但美光拒绝了。据一位知情人士称,出于保护技术的考虑,该公司后来又拒绝了几家中国企业的合作提议。此人要求匿名,因为他没有获得公开发言的授权。6parker.com


    美光去年12月向北加州联邦地方法院(Federal District Court for the Northern District of California)提交的文件中表示,就在那个时候,一家中国公司采取了盗窃手段。6parker.com


    美光的指控主要指向福建晋华集成电路公司,它是一家国家支持的芯片制造商,计划在中国福建省投资57亿美元建设一个工厂。两年前,晋华请台湾公司联电帮助该工厂开发技术。美光科技在诉讼中表示,联电和晋华没有开启设计芯片所需的漫长旅程,而是决定采取盗窃的方式。6parker.com


    联电的一名发言人否认了这些指控,拒绝进一步置评。晋华没有回复置评请求。6parker.com


    据台湾当局称,首先,联电从美光的台湾分部挖走了工程师,承诺加薪和奖金。据美光的法庭文件和台湾当局称,然后,它要求那些工程师带走美光的一些机密文件。台湾当局称,这些工程师非法带走了900多份文件,其中包含美光先进的存储芯片的关键规格和细节。6parker.com


    美光的法庭文件显示,美光在发现一名准备离职的工程师使用谷歌了解如何清除一台公司笔记本电脑的内容后,开始起疑。据法庭文件称,后来,晋华和联电在美国举行了一场针对美光员工的招聘活动,它在讨论即将生产的芯片时所展示的幻灯片中包含美光的内部代码名称。6parker.com


    收到美光的提醒,台湾警方窃听了一名为联电所招募的美光工程师肯尼·王(Kenny Wang)的电话。根据台湾一份针对肯尼·王等人的起诉书显示,联电于2016年初通过智能手机信息应用程序Line主动联系肯尼·王,当时他还在美光工作。联电解释说,该公司在开发自己的记忆芯片技术方面遇到了困难。肯尼·王随后从美光的服务器拿走了该公司需要的信息,且该信息后被用于帮助联电的开发设计。警方表示肯尼·王在联电获得了升迁。6parker.com


    当去年年初,调查人员出现在联电的办公室时,警方说,一些工作人员匆忙将他们从美光那里获得的东西藏了起来。肯尼·王及另一位前美光科技的雇员将笔记本电脑、U盘及文件交给了一位助理工程师,她将这些东西锁在了自己的个人储物柜里。随后,她带着肯尼·王的电话离开了办公室——警方窃听的那部电话,后来该电话很快就被找到了。6parker.com


    去年,联电对肯尼·王提起刑事诉讼,遭到了台湾检方的拒绝。肯尼·王及其他遭到起诉的工程师表示,他们是出于个人研究的目的拿走这些行业机密的。肯尼·王没有回复请求他置评的邮件和电话。6parker.com


    一月,就多种型号的记忆芯片,晋华和联电向美光科技提起专利侵犯诉讼。作为这项诉讼的一部分,两家公司请求法院禁止美光科技生产、销售这些产品,并且向他们支付赔偿金。此案正在福建一家法院审理。福建省政府是晋华的一个投资方。6parker.com


    在一封写给特朗普总统的信中,爱达荷州共和党参议员吉姆·里施(Jim Risch)和迈克尔·D·克拉波(Michael D. Crapo)对整起案子,尤其是专利案进展的速度之快表达了关切。该起诉讼可能会禁止美光科技在中国出售一些产品。6parker.com


    “如果这起针对美光科技的诉讼向前推进,并且中国政府再次作出对其自身有利的判决,将对美光科技及美国科技行业整体造成重大损害,”《纽约时报》查阅过的这封信中写道。6parker.com


    五月,中国的市场监管方对美光科技开启了价格操控调查,调查对象还包括韩国记忆芯片制造商海力士(SK Hynix)和三星电子(Samsung Electronics)。由于激增的需求及三家占据市场主导地位的公司生产力有限,记忆芯片的价格在去年出现跃升。另一个中国监管机构也表示,正在关注价格上涨,该机构批准了一项对晋华的数百万美元的拨款。6parker.com


    晋华及其他中国芯片制造商在迎头赶上其他公司上面临着障碍。半导体的生产涉及一种极为复杂、自动化的过程,这个过程控制着一切,细至原子层面。6parker.com


    为了实现这一点,晋华及其他公司都在一掷千金。在福建晋江,一个曾经因制鞋中心而闻名的地方,晋华的新工厂即将完工。这个工厂有五层楼高、好几个足球场那么长,内有近9300平方米的办公空间。6parker.com


    晋江的经济规划人员表示,他们希望能吸引更多来自台湾的人才。除了增设更多到那里的航班,这个小城还正在建设一所双语国际学校、一家有着国际认证的医院及高档公寓。新工厂离机场开车不远。
     
  4. 9981

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    https://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/06/26/dram_technology_thievery_by_taiwanese_tech_co/

    Taiwanese tech upstarts stole our RAM secrets and staff, claims Micron
    Chinese DRAM drama – what you need to know

    Analysis Micron is alleging United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC) of Taiwan blatantly stole its intellectual property and gave it to a Chinese DRAM foundry startup, Fujian Jinhua Integrated Circuit Company.

    Following this alleged theft, Chinese regulators opened an DRAM price-fixing inquiry against memory-makers Micron, Samsung, and SK Hynix – and Fujian Jinhua and UMC accused Micron of patent infringement in China.

    "Micron confirms that on December 4, 2017, the company filed a civil suit in California under the Defend Trade Secrets Act against UMC and Jinhua for theft of its trade secrets and other misconduct," Micron told The Register this week. "Micron aggressively protects its Intellectual Property worldwide and will use all available legal options to remedy any misappropriation."

    The case caught the attention of the mainstream news late last week. Here's the relevant legal paperwork and background to this saga.

    The tale begins
    According to documents Micron filed against UMC in a US federal district court of northern California, the fight kicked off with Micron buying Japan’s Elpida and its DRAM fab operations in August 2013. These included the Rexchip operation in Taiwan, chaired by Stephen (Zheng-Kun) Chen, which became the Micron Memory Taiwan company, with Chen remaining in the chair.

    UMC is an OEM DRAM foundry business set up in 1980, with foundries in Taiwan, Singapore, and mainland China. It doesn’t have its own DRAM expertise, building DRAM chips from designs supplied by its customers.

    In 2015, the Chinese government publicized a Made in China 2025 plan, which aims to make China independent of key Western-owned manufacturing expertise, including computer technologies such as DRAM.

    In July that year, China’s Tsinghua Unigroup offered to buy Micron for $23bn, but Micron said no.

    Jinhua
    Fujian Jinhua Integrated Circuit Company (Jinhua) was started up by the Fujian provincial authority in China and other investors in 2015, to build a DRAM foundry in Fujian, with a $5.65bn investment.

    [​IMG]
    What a site ... The proposed Jinhua DRAM fab

    According to Micron’s filed documents, which include Taiwanese cops' criminal indictments against UMC staff, Stephen Chen left Micron Memory Taiwan (MMT) to join UMC as a senior veep in September 2015. MMT section chief, JT Ho, resigned from MMT in October, and joined UMC in November. His employment agreement with Micron barred him taking proprietary information with him.

    Jinghua decided to partner with UMC to obtain needed DRAM technology, and the two agreed in January 2016 that UMC would develop 32nm DRAM and "32Snm" DRAM technologies for Jinhua, which would pay $300m for equipment purchase plus $400m for the development.

    But UMC didn’t have the information that was needed. It had to obtain it from elsewhere, somehow. Micron had an inkling where, alleging:

    As a semiconductor foundry with no advanced DRAM process, UMC had no realistic capability to fulfill its commitments under their agreement. Jinhua knew that UMC did not possess the technological resources to develop the promised technology by itself, and understood that the technology would be based substantially on Micron’s DRAM designs and processes.

    So Micron called in the lawyers.

    MMT recruitment blitz
    UMC established the New Business Development (“NBD”) at the Second Factory Area of its Fab 12A in Taiwan’s Tainan Science Park, also in January 2016, with Stephen Chen in charge of it. He, according to Micron, set about recruiting MMT employees and getting hold of the necessary trade secrets about Micron technology from them.

    MMT’s manager of communication and talent strategy Sandy Kuo joined UMC in February 2016. Her Micron employment contract forbade her soliciting Micron staff to join a competitor for 12 months from her resignation. Despite this, Micron claimed, she helped UMC recruit MMT process manager S.Y. Chen later that year.

    In April 2016, another MMT employee, product quality integration manager Kenny Wang, joined UMC, and – it is alleged – brought confidential Micron DRAM blueprints with him. Micron's document stated:

    On the pretext that he would be joining his family’s business, Wang submitted a resignation letter to MMT on April 5, 2016 and asked to have April 26, 2016 be his last day. As described below, during the weeks leading up to his last day, Wang worked diligently to steal a massive amount of Micron trade secrets for use at UMC. Two days later, on April 28, 2016, Wang formally joined UMC and was assigned to the PM2 division of the New Business Development Unit.

    It went on to claim: "Originally UMC had no mask tape out team or ion-implantation specialists. After Kenny Wang provided the DR25nm design rules production parameters, PI2 skipped processes such as the optical lithography adjustment, etching and yellow light processes when developing the F32 DRAM.

    "The design rules were completed within only two months and handed to the chip design manufacturer for the next step. Kenny Wang was promoted to Device Manager in January 2017 for excellent performance in reducing the time, costs, equipment and labor in producing the design rules."

    July 2016 saw Jinghua break ground on its Fujian fab, while in October UMC and Jinghua run a recruitment fair in Silicon Valley for RAM chip experts. A presentation at the event used Micron DRAM technology code names, such as “F32” and “F32S”, Micron claimed:

    [These] are the exact internal code names of DRAM products developed and designed by Elpida (later acquired and owned by Micron), which had been in production at the Rexchip fab (now Micron’s Fab 16) where Co-Conspirators Chen, Ho, and Wang all previously worked.

    Taiwan investigations
    The Taiwanese authorities were alerted, and Micron checked its internal IT records to find that Wang and Ho had copied confidential information about DRAM manufacturing to laptops, USB sticks, and even Google Drive, with Micron able to identify individual files, and their type, times and dates of access, it is alleged.

    In early 2017, Wang’s phone was tapped, we're told. The UMC offices were raided by the cops with search warrants on February 7 and again on the 14th, seizing documents, laptops, and smartphones, despite a UMC employee taking one of Wang’s phones out of the building, it is claimed. The mobile was later recovered, and Wang confessed to leaking secret blueprints, according to Micron’s documents. UMC staff also destroyed or hid incriminating materials, according to Micron.

    The Taiwanese authorities indicted UMC, Ho, and Wang in August 2017, for allegedly conspiring to steal and misappropriate Micron trade secrets so as to deliver that information to Jinghua.

    Micron goes to court
    In December 2017, Micron fired off a civil complaint against UMC in northern California. It stated:

    UMC is prepared to make hundreds of millions of dollars for its purported “development work,” and Jinhua plans to avoid hundreds of millions of dollars in costs and the many months of R&D effort that honest competition would require.

    And in January 2018, in what looked like a tit-for-tat move, Jinhua and UMC accused Micron of patent infringement in China relating to DDR4 technologies, solid-state drives, and memory chips used in graphics cards. Micron said: “The case is being heard by a court in Fujian Province. The Fujian provincial government is an investor in Jinhua.”

    Micron – based in Boise, Idaho, USA – also claimed: “On February 22, 2017... Shortly after Taiwanese prosecutors raided UMC’s NBD facility, UMC promoted and transferred Chen to serve as President of Jinhua in Mainland China.” It went on:

    After UMC’s indictment for trade secret theft became public, the biz announced that it was moving ahead full steam with Jinhua and that it was on track to complete the first stage of the project in 2018. Micron seeks civil redress to the full extent of applicable law (including) Exemplary and punitive damages, and treble damages.

    Latest moves
    The most recent Chinese move is its antitrust agency’s May probe into alleged DRAM price-fixing by Micron, Samsung, and SK Hynix.

    This example of alleged Chinese high-tech DRAM IT secrets theft may form a foundation on which US President Trump's import sanctions against China sit, and his actions to limit Chinese concerns to buy into US companies.

    UMC tried to have the California case dismissed as all the alleged activity took place outside the USA, arguing the US court has no jurisdiction.

    A spoeksman at UMC, Richard Yu sent us a statement:

    “UMC denies allegations regarding the infringement of third-party IP, and we are confident that any investigation through litigation will ultimately support our position. Unfortunately, we cannot comment further on these two ongoing cases.”

    The status of Micron’s lawsuit against UMC and Jinhua in California is that the UMC application to dismiss the lawsuit will be heard in September, and there will be a case management conference of the three parties involved before Judge the Honorable Maxine Chesney on Friday, October 12. ®

    The case is 3:17-cv-06932-MMC Micron Technology, Inc. v. United Microelectronics Corporation et al.
     
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    https://www.courant.com/la-fi-trade-lighthizer-20181101-story.html

    To Trump's trade czar, the key to boosting U.S. industry is playing hardball with China

    During heated trade talks with Japan in the 1980s, Robert Lighthizer, then a top negotiator under President Reagan, earned the nickname “missile man” after he took one of Japan’s written offers, folded it into a paper airplane and flung it at the opposing side.

    More than 30 years on, Lighthizer is now leading the charge for President Trump in a much bigger and more consequential trade fight with China, which overtook Japan as the world’s second-largest economy in 2010.

    The United States and China have exchanged several volleys of massive tariffs this year and are currently at an impasse. Where the two sides go from here, and how much more pain the administration is willing to exact and absorb, will depend in good part on Lighthizer’s judgment.

    A veteran trade lawyer and experienced Washington hand, the guttural, blunt-speaking 71-year-old has had Trump’s ear from the start as the U.S. trade representative. But his recent success in closing an improbable deal with Canada and Mexico on a new North American Free Trade Agreement — a top campaign promise for Trump — firmly established Lighthizer as the administration’s most important voice on trade after the president.

    Lighthizer shares Trump’s preference for hardball tactics and rebuilding domestic manufacturing, a conviction that for Lighthizer stems in part from his roots in the Rust Belt. He was born and raised in Ashtabula, Ohio, a onetime railroad and coal-transport town that, like Youngstown to the south, Erie, Pa., to the east and Cleveland to the west, has been pummeled by industrial decline.

    “I don’t sense there’s any daylight between Lighthizer and the president,” said Alan Wolff, a longtime Washington attorney and now deputy director-general of the World Trade Organization. “The fundamental objectives have always been the same: Trade policy has to benefit the U.S. industrial base.”

    That doesn’t mean Trump has a grand strategy on how to achieve that objective. Nor is it assured that Trump won’t settle with China for something less if it were to boost his personal stature or larger political goals. One test may come at the end of November in Buenos Aires, where world leaders will gather for the annual G-20 summit. Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping could use the occasion to hold talks.

    Because Trump has frequently spoken about his personal chemistry with Xi, some analysts wonder whether Trump could cut a modest or symbolic deal with the Chinese leader, as he did with North Korean ruler Kim Jong Un in Singapore. Administration officials have downplayed that possibility. And the fact that Lighthizer is expected to accompany Trump to Argentina diminishes those odds.

    Lighthizer has backed a ramp-up in tariffs to exert increasing pressure on China, believing that Beijing’s industrial policies present an existential threat to America’s economic future and that Chinese officials will be more likely to make meaningful concessions if they are pressed against the wall.

    In September the administration’s levies expanded to affect a total of some $250 billion of Chinese goods, half of all U.S. merchandise imports from China. Beijing has retaliated with duties on $110 billion of American-made products, or about 85% of all imports from the United States.

    Even as American farmers and other businesses complain about the harm from tariffs, Lighthizer has shown no sense of urgency to sit down with Chinese counterparts. And he will almost certainly be urging Trump to press for concrete structural changes in China’s economic policies when he meets with Xi, rather than accept vague commitments and promises to buy a bunch more airplanes, soybeans and other goods to shave the U.S. trade deficit with China.

    “His not talking with the Chinese makes it harder for the Trump-Xi meeting to have any substance on trade,” said Derek Scissors, a China scholar at the American Enterprise Institute who has advised the administration on China matters.

    sweeping speech last month at the Hudson Institute, Vice President Mike Pence issued a lengthy attack accusing Beijing of military aggression, economic mercantilism and a broad range of nefarious activities, including meddling in U.S. midterm elections and infiltrating American universities.

    While Pence offered limited evidence, the 40-minute broadside was seen by some experts as a declaration of a new cold war. It has been parsed over in Beijing and will almost certainly further complicate the trade conflict, said Cheng Li, a China expert at the Brookings Institution.

    Lighthizer declined to be interviewed for this article, but he’s made clear that the United States can — and must — take a forceful stand against China’s state-led economic model.

    He and many others in the West say Beijing has not kept up its part of the bargain when it was invited to enjoy the benefits of WTO membership in 2001 and that current international legal mechanisms are unable to deal effectively with Beijing’s market-distorting practices, such as China’s overproduction of steel, and policies that lead to coercion or outright theft of U.S. intellectual property.

    A linchpin of the U.S. fight with China, at least in Lighthizer’s eyes, is Xi’s so-called Made in China 2025, an ambitious state-led plan to funnel billions of dollars to build up dominant Chinese firms in key sectors such as robotics, aviation, artificial intelligence and biomedicine.

    “They have a system, and their system is challenging our system,” Lighthizer said in congressional testimony in July, telling senators that the U.S. struggle with China is “going to go on for years.”

    In Trump, Lighthizer hopes he’s found a president whose trade focus will remain on promoting manufacturing at home rather than shaping foreign policy.

    Lighthizer’s view “has long been that trade policy has taken a back seat to diplomatic and global strategic priorities,” said Bonnie Byers, a trade lawyer at King & Spalding who has known Lighthizer since the early 1990s.

    But it remains to be seen whether Trump will keep that commitment. The president has previously said he would cut China slack on trade if Xi helped pressure North Korea to give up its nuclear weapons program.

    Li of the Brookings Institution said Beijing clearly does not want to negotiate with Lighthizer, but now finds itself with little choice. In the past the Chinese could rightfully complain about shifting or mixed signals coming from the White House as those committed to the nationalistic policies of Trump's campaign vied with proponents of free-trade orthodoxy.

    But no longer. The so-called globalist camp lost its most prominent proponent when National Economic Council Director Gary Cohn departed in March after failing to stop Trump from imposing blanket tariffs on steel imports. Cohn’s replacement, Larry Kudlow, and Treasury Secretary Steven T. Mnuchin are more pro-free trade and at times have tried to promote a softer approach. But they have been overshadowed by Lighthizer and Trump trade advisor Peter Navarro, a sharp China critic who has been at Trump’s side since the 2017 campaign but whose inexperience in Washington and truculence have hurt his effectiveness.

    By contrast, Lighthizer is widely regarded as a skillful tactician and politically savvy, having learned his way around Congress beginning in the late 1970s from then-Sen. Bob Dole, for whom he worked as a minority counsel and later staff director of the Senate Finance Committee.

    When Reagan tapped Lighthizer as a deputy U.S trade representative in 1983, the U.S. was already embroiled in a bitter trade conflict with Japan over allegations of dumping, subsidizing key industries and appropriating American technology. Similar complaints have been lodged against China, albeit on a larger scale.

    Amid intense U.S. pressure and domestic considerations, Japan agreed by the mid-1980s to voluntarily limit its exports of steel, cars and other goods — a strategy of “managed trade” that Lighthizer more recently employed in renegotiating NAFTA and in his dealings with other countries.

    “The key lesson of Japan was that the two countries were playing very different economic games,” said Clyde Prestowitz, who worked on Asia trade for Commerce in Reagan’s first term. “China and the U.S. are also playing different games.”

    What’s different, Prestowitz said, is that the U.S. doesn’t have the automatic pressure points with Beijing, as China was never an American ally or under its security umbrella.

    “Bob is well aware of this and is finding other means of gaining negotiating leverage,” he said.
     
  6. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    https://www.inkstonenews.com/busine...s-us-policy-sparked-trade-war/article/2170659

    .......


    Imbi Plaza, a shopping mall on the fringe of Kuala Lumpur, capital of Malaysia, is a good place in which to start understanding how the United States and China came to be in a trade war in 2018.

    In its heyday, in the 1990s and early 2000s, Imbi was the Malaysian capital’s thriving bazaar of high-tech – a collection of shops selling computer hardware and accessories, and the software needed to run them.

    The hardware was mostly real, though rumors hovered in the complex’s dank air of proprietors switching original PC components for cheaper ones, to make a little extra on the side.

    Nobody worried about that with the software, though. It was all fake, and everybody knew it. If you wanted to drop $200 on real software, go buy it somewhere else, sucker.

    Stores with rack after rack of poorly printed package covers on display offered pirated copies of virtually every program available. Need the latest Windows operating system? “Ten ringgit ($2.40).”

    MS Office? “Ten ringgit.”

    Adobe Acrobat? “Why not get the multi-program Adobe suite?”

    “Really? How much?”

    “Ten ringgit. All three for twenty-five.”

    Every big city in Asia seemed to have an Imbi Plaza or two. And nobody did much about them.
    ............

    Perhaps, as trade hawks like Lighthizer had been saying for years, the time for talk had passed. Beijing had been making promises on trade since at least 1992.

    If fool me once was shame on you, and fool me twice was shame on me, what did you call fool me over and over again for a quarter of a century? Trump’s team was not interested in finding out. The 100-day plan ended with little to show.


    Three weeks later, in mid-August, Trump issued a memorandum to Lighthizer instructing him to “determine […] whether to investigate any of China’s laws, policies, practices or actions that may be unreasonable or discriminatory and that may be harming American intellectual property rights, innovation or technology development.”

    Lighthizer was going to tackle the problem no American had resolved – how to protect US intellectual property in China. The problem now “[united] the ideological spectrum”, wrote The Wall Street Journal.

    Trump did not seem like a guy who was going to accept another reform promise from Beijing, declare victory and move on. He seemed like a guy intent on fixing a massive US economic problem, though practically all of America’s economic elite said he had no clue what he was doing.

    The second part of Robert Boxwell’s feature on the China-US trade war will be published next week.
     
  7. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    最新发现的这篇文章, 很好的说明了中国加入世贸组织的前世今生, 美国各届总统急于解决的问题,和当前川普政府的立场。


    希望有兴趣的同学读完全篇
     
  8. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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  9. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    http://www.wenxuecity.com/news/2018/11/13/7816727.html

    美国市场上最难替代的中国货,是这三样

    虽然确实中国制造优势不小,不过根据美媒观察,美国市场上销售的中国产品中,最难以取代的有三种。

    中国的光伏产业之前深受产能过剩困扰

    彭博社11月12日报道称,由于供应链的关系,贸易战难以打击中国几种商品的出口。

    首先是锂电池,全世界生产的175,000兆瓦的锂电池,其中113,000兆瓦产自中国。中国掌握着制造锂电池所需的大部分原料,这三年来中国的产量激增。美国需要开发更多的中国以外的锂电池市场。

    第二是光伏逆变器,光伏产业是受中美关税战打击最大的行业之一,但据美国行内人士表示,美国国内使用的光伏逆变器大多从中国进口。

    第三是替代药物的镇痛治疗仪器,镇痛药有毒性,欧姆龙贩卖的经皮神经电刺激仪器是很好的替代品,这种机器25年间都在中国生产,基地恐怕短时间内难以再转移到美国。

    虽然确实中国制造优势不小,不过根据美媒观察,美国市场上销售的中国产品中,最难以取代的有三种。

    中国的光伏产业之前深受产能过剩困扰

    彭博社11月12日报道称,由于供应链的关系,贸易战难以打击中国几种商品的出口。

    首先是锂电池,全世界生产的175,000兆瓦的锂电池,其中113,000兆瓦产自中国。中国掌握着制造锂电池所需的大部分原料,这三年来中国的产量激增。美国需要开发更多的中国以外的锂电池市场。

    第二是光伏逆变器,光伏产业是受中美关税战打击最大的行业之一,但据美国行内人士表示,美国国内使用的光伏逆变器大多从中国进口。

    第三是替代药物的镇痛治疗仪器,镇痛药有毒性,欧姆龙贩卖的经皮神经电刺激仪器是很好的替代品,这种机器25年间都在中国生产,基地恐怕短时间内难以再转移到美国。
     
  10. ccc

    ccc 难得糊涂 ID:6614 管理成员 VIP

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    讨论了半年多了。

    啥结果?
     
  11. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    三四十年投资扶植起来的势力, 您觉得半年就能搞定? 在这场让土共改变行为的贸易直接对抗行动, 考验美国政府的不仅是毅力和耐心, 还有勇气和智慧。
     
  12. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news...90547c4/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.1b577bf046b2

    The Finance 202: Kudlow-Navarro spat reveals ongoing White House split over China

    President Trump's top economic adviser Larry Kudlow on Nov. 13 said the U.S. is talking with China on trade again and called it a "very positive" development. (Reuters)

    If the Chinese have any lingering doubts about whether the Trump team remains divided over the trade war, Larry Kudlow just laid them to rest.

    President Trump’s top economic adviser — an advocate of negotiating economic peace with Beijing — on Tuesday morning blasted recent comments on the matter from Peter Navarro, the president’s top trade adviser and a China hawk. Kudlow said Navarro was “way off base,” “freelancing,” and “not representing the president or the administration,” when he warned unnamed financiers to stay away from U.S.-China trade talks.

    Navarro, in a fiery Friday speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, accused unnamed people of acting as “unpaid foreign agents,” trying to put “the imprimatur of Goldman Sachs and Wall Street” on a deal between the superpowers (see the full address here). Kudlow responded in a CNBC interview Tuesday, saying Navarro was “not authorized by anybody” to make those remarks and adding they had done “a great disservice” to the president.

    The clash comes as the Trump administration is reengaging with Beijing ahead of a meeting this month between Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping at the G-20 summit in Buenos Aires. That huddle likely provides the last best hope for heading off a dramatic escalation of the trade conflict. Barring a breakthrough, Trump has threatened to levy tariffs on the remaining $267 billion in Chinese imports — and 10 percent duties that are in place on $200 billion of Chinese goods are set to climb to 25 percent at the start of next year.

    Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin talked trade by phone on Friday with his Chinese counterpart, Vice Premier Liu He, the Wall Street Journal reported. That conversation followed one this month between Trump and Xi. And Kudlow told reporters yesterday the U.S. and Chinese governments are now “communicating at all levels and that’s a very good thing.” Ahead of the G-20 meeting, he said the administration is working on “background materials in preparation and we’re waiting for China to come back with some thoughts.”

    Vice President Pence, meanwhile, tells The Post’s Josh Rogin that Xi will need to pledge massive changes to secure a deal. Per Josh, “In addition to trade, Pence said China must offer concessions on several issues, including but not limited to its rampant intellectual property theft, forced technology transfer, restricted access to Chinese markets, respect for international rules and norms, efforts to limit freedom of navigation in international waters and Chinese Communist Party interference in the politics of Western countries.”

    The big question hanging over the conflict remains what kind of deal Trump will accept. And the Kudlow-Navarro spat appears to offer China watchers some fresh clues.

    Navarro’s speech “was a clear tip-off that a deal is in the works,” says Fred Bergsten, the founding director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. “He doesn’t want a deal, so he’s going public with his complaints about it.”

    [​IMG]
    White House National Trade Council Director Peter Navarro. (Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

    Some aren’t convinced. Another person close to the process noted Trump has been talking up his nationalist bona fides recently: “He may be saying to the free traders, ‘Go bring me a deal, while also saying to the other faction, 'Give me some tariffs. Help me ensure the Chinese pay a price for pillaging and plundering.’ I think they coexist.”

    The U.S. and China last arrived at such a potentially decisive moment in May, when Mnuchin negotiated a deal with Liu that Trump ultimately rejected, heeding his hawks, including Navarro and U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer.

    “We’re at a similar intersection,” says Scott Kennedy, director of the Project on Chinese Business and Political Economy at CSIS. “The two presidents meeting at the G-20 is the next opportunity for them to find a potential resolution, limited or larger, so there’s been a lot of lobbying inside and outside the administration to suggest even a limited deal, like a freeze of further hostilities, is warranted. We’re seeing the consequences of that effort in the sparring back and forth in public.”

    That lobbying has included cameo appearances by former treasury secretary Hank Paulson and former secretary of state Henry Kissinger. Paulson, the former Goldman Sachs CEO, warned in a speech in Singapore last week that an “economic iron curtain” threatens to divide the world if the U.S. and China can’t resolve their differences; Kissinger, at the same conference, said “fundamental conflict” between the countries “will destroy hope for the world order.” Both have met with Chinese leaders in the past two weeks, the Journal reports.

    It’s not clear who Navarro had in mind when he called out Wall Streeters. But Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman, “who has one of the closest relationships to Beijing of any American executive, is in many ways the president’s de facto China whisperer,” The Washington Post’s Michael Kranish reported in March. Schwarzman, he wrote, helped “persuade the man who said Beijing’s leaders were ‘raping’ the United States not to follow through on a campaign promise to declare China a ‘currency manipulator.’”

    The divisions aren’t new: Navarro and Mnuchin had an “expletive-packed shouting match” in Beijing back in May after Navarro complained he was being excluded from meetings with Chinese leaders, The Post reported at the time.

    But the tensions are spilling back into the open at a critical moment. If Trump and Xi can’t strike a deal, they may not get another chance to hash one out in person until the next G-20 summit in Osaka, in late June.
     
  13. 飞来客

    飞来客 本站元老 ID:64158 VIP

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    螳臂当车。
     
  14. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    https://news.toutiaoabc.com/newspark/view.php?app=news&act=view&nid=327395

    传北京书面回复美国贸易要求 2025政策不变(图)

    中美元首月底会面之前,两国解决贸易摩擦有新进展。路透引述消息称,中国书面回应了美国对全面贸易改革的要求。但据彭博,文件相关内容大部分似是旧调重弹,不符合美国总统特朗普要求的重大结构改革,包括没有承诺改变产业政策,如"中国制造2025",双方谈判还有很长的路要走。


      路透报道,美国政府3名消息人士周三(14日)称,中国书面回应了美国对全面贸易改革的要求。这可能启动协商,让两国贸易战结束。

      根据彭博,3名知情人士透露,中国官员已向特朗普政府列出一系列潜在的让步,是今年夏天以来首次,标示继续试图化解贸易战。另外两位熟悉会谈人士认为,在中国国家主席习近平与特朗普月底在二十国集团(G20)峰会见面前,中国的提议代表双方进行建设性讨论的标志。


        未改"中国制造2025"政策


      不过,知情人士称,中方目前提出的承诺,其类型不符合特朗普一直要求的重大结构改革,双方谈判仍有很长的路要走。一位知情人士表示,会谈仍持续且具建设性。

      其中一位知情人士表示,因此习特会能够达成多么实质性的协议,引起外界质疑 。

      据一位知情人士透露,文件大部分内容似是旧调重弹北京已做出的改变,例如提高某些行业的外国投资股权上限。据熟悉讨论的一位知情人士,其中没有包含改变产业政策的承诺,例如华府一直不满的"中国制造2025"。

      美国财政部、中国外交部未有回应。
     
  15. 9981

    9981 Nanoriver ID:40702 VIP

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    https://www.cnn.com/2018/11/15/politics/us-china-trade-war-negotiation/index.html

    Washington (CNN)The Chinese government has presented an offer to the United States to try to push forward stalled trade talks before the leaders of the two economic superpowers meet at the end of this month, according to two people briefed on the discussions.

    The opening bid falls short of many of the core demands the White House has repeatedly detailed as must-haves in trade talks with Beijing, including addressing technology transfers and intellectual property theft, according to one of the people briefed. Instead, the proposal has been described as a rehash of previous commitments Chinese leaders have publicly announced, like selectively lifting tariffs.
    "What they are offering is not new," this person said. "I think the two sides remain at an impasse. The channels are now open again, but there's a lot of work to get to — whether it's a modest de-escalation or ceasefire."
    [​IMG]

    US, China revive trade talks ahead of Argentina meeting, Ross says

    Beijing's proposal comes after US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin and Chinese Vice Premier Liu He spoke by phone on Friday to jump start trade discussions ahead of an expected meeting between the two countries' leaders. US President Donald Trump has said he will have a "good meeting" with his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, on the sidelines of the G20 leaders summit in Buenos Aires later this month.

    Asked about the offer at a weekly news briefing in Beijing on Thursday, Chinese Commerce Ministry spokesman Gao Feng would only reiterate comments from earlier in the week that "high-level communications on the economic and trade front have resumed" following a phone conversation between Trump and Xi two weeks ago.
    "Teams from both sides are in close contact to carefully implement the consensus reached by the two leaders in their phone call," Gao said.
    A US Treasury Department spokesperson could not immediately be reached for comment late Wednesday.
    It remained unclear in recent days whether the Chinese government would be willing to present any offer ahead of the planned dinner between the two leaders in Argentina.
    The United States was demanding that the Chinese come up with a clear offer before negotiations on a trade deal could start, while Beijing had been reluctant, seeking talks ahead of making any firm proposals.
    Both sides have been working toward a path to end the escalating trade war, which has left investors jittery over its impact on consumers and companies in the world's top two economies.
    "What the offer did is now create an opportunity for the US government to respond," said the person briefed.
    [​IMG]

    China's trade war woes won't go away after Democrats' midterm gains

    Still, the reformulated offer — which includes easing restrictions on foreign investment and eliminatingrequirements for joint ventures with Chinese partners in some sectors — raises the stakes over whether the two sides will be able to strike a framework agreement in the two weeks ahead of the G20 summit.
    "They have a lot of work to do and they're going to have to find a way to make up for lost time," added the person, who described the bid as not "forward leaning enough" to push the negotiating process to a positive outcome.
    The offer was first reported by Bloomberg News.
    Even Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross raised doubts earlier this week over whether the governments could reach a deal anytime soon.
    "The issue with China is not just tariffs," Ross said at a Yahoo Finance All Markets Summit. "If it was just tariffs, I think we could work it out very, very, very quickly."
    "The real issue is intellectual property rights, forced technology transfers, industrial espionage, that kind of thing. We can't tolerate abuses of that sort,"
    he said.
    [​IMG]

    US-China fault lines on display as top officials meet

    Top US officials have sent conflicting signals in recent weeks.
    The Trump administration has been divided between free traders — including those with Wall Street backgrounds like Mnuchin and White House economic adviser Larry Kudlow — and hardliners like US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and White House trade adviser Peter Navarro.
    Just last week, Navarro took a shot at Wall Street, warning "globalist elites" against meddling with the Trump administration's policy on China.
    "If and when there is a deal, it will be on President Donald J. Trump's terms — not Wall Street terms," Navarro, a former economics professor, said during a speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington.
    Speaking to reporters on the White House lawn Tuesday, Kudlow said that Navarro "misspoke" and "wasn't authorized" to speak on the matter.
    [​IMG]

    Forget the trade war, China's economy has other big problems

    The Trump administration has already slapped tariffs on $250 billion in Chinese products since July. The tariffs on $200 billion of those goods are set to increase to 25% from 10% on January 1, which would further escalate the conflict.
    China retaliated with tariffs on $110 billion of US products and is likely to respond with more if the United States goes ahead with the increase at the start of January.
    Trump has made it a priority to take an aggressive stance against China for what he says are unfair trade practices, including intellectual property theft and forced technology transfers. He's threatened to escalate the trade war further by imposing tariffs on all the remaining goods that China sells to the United States.
    Many American manufacturers, farmers and lawmakers from both sides of the aisle say they appreciate the administration's efforts to change China's economic policies. But some argue the tariffs aren't the best way to address the problems. They pose a dilemma for US importers who must decide whether to absorb the higher cost of the goods or pass it on to consumers, and some exporters are hurting from China's retaliatory tariffs.
     

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