争议: All species are separated from each other by bridgeless gaps; intermediates between species are not observed
争议：all the evidence shows that the record is real: the gaps we see reflect real events in life’s history
争议： The known fossil record is not, and never has been, in accord with gradualism； In fact, the fossil record does not convincingly document a single transition from one species to another.
争议： we have even fewer examples of evolutionary transition than we had in Darwin’s time， some of the classic cases of Darwinian change in the fossil record, such as the evolution of the horse in North America, have had to be discarded or modified as a result of more detailed information; Ostrea-Gryphaea and Zaphrentis delanouei, have long since lost their scientific respectability
争议：In large parts of the natural system it is impossible to demonstrate that one particular taxonomic sequence is superior to other alternatives； In other words, biological improvement is hard to find; Increasing complexity through time is elusive at best.
争议：On the contrary, it showed that species generally remained constant throughout their history and were replaced quite suddenly by significantly different forms; The great majority of species do not show any appreciable evolutionary change at all
“The extreme rarity of transitional forms in the fossil record persists as the trade secret of paleontology. The evolutionary trees that adorn our textbooks have data only at the tips and nods of their branches"
"... and some pure fantasy has crept into textbooks"
" We paleontologist have said that the history of life supports that interpretation [gradual adaptive change], all the while knowing that it does not."
"Just as we have long known about stasis and abrupt appearance, but have chose to fob it off upon an imperfect fossil record ... "
"they’ve known for over a hundred years that such is not the case. …It’s the only reason why they can correlate rocks with their fossils, for instance. …They’ve ignored the question completely."
"Paleontologists are traditionally famous (or infamous) for reconstructing whole animals from the debris of death. Mostly they cheat. …"