CBC 排华法案实施100年后,加拿大反华种族主义依然存在

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100 years after Exclusion Act, anti-Chinese racism in Canada remains​

Legacy of legislated anti-Chinese racism is still being felt today, say community members​


Vivian Luk · CBC Radio · Posted: Jul 01, 2023 4:00 AM EDT | Last Updated: 7 hours ago

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UBC historian Henry Yu's grandfather arrived in Canada in 1923 and paid the $500 head tax. (Catherine Clement )

CBC Radio Specials48:58100 Years Later: The Dark Side of Gold Mountain

Henry Yu's grandparents' marriage started out like a scene from a movie.

The year was 1937. Yu's grandfather, Yeung Sing Yew, had just returned to visit family in Zhongshan county in China, after spending a decade working in Canada.

Yu said his grandfather spotted the woman who would later become his wife washing clothes beside a stream and "was smitten."

"Then his mother kind of looked into it, asked and found out who it was. And then arrangements were made and next thing you know, they're married."

Yeung's wife was pregnant when he went back to B.C., where he worked as a labourer and cook. He thought his family would soon join him there.

He did not know then it would take nearly three decades for that reunion to happen.

Yeung's was one of hundreds of Chinese families that — in their pursuit of a better life in a part of the world known to them as "Gold Mountain" — were separated during this chapter in Canadian history.

In 1923, the Canadian government passed what is now referred to as the Chinese Exclusion Act.

It banned almost all Chinese immigration to Canada. It was an escalation of the head tax implemented in 1885 — after more than 17,000 Chinese labourers had helped build the Canadian Pacific Railway. Along with having to pay $50 — and then $500 by 1905 — to enter Canada, Chinese people were also denied the right to vote, hold public office, own land and work certain jobs.

While those anti-Chinese policies are a thing of the past, Yu said Asian-Canadians continue to experience racism today.

His grandfather Yeung could return to Canada in 1937 because he had first arrived before the Exclusion Act. While the law was repealed in 1947, economic hardship and discriminatory policies at the local and provincial level meant Yeung still would not meet his daughter, Yeung Kon Yee, until she and her mother finally arrived in Vancouver in 1965, when she was 28 years old.

Yu, a historian at the University of British Columbia, has dedicated his academic career to documenting the history of legislated anti-Chinese racism. It had torn his own family apart for years. But the Exclusion Act had also denied many Chinese men the chance to start families of their own, and forced them to form "bachelor societies."

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Henry Yu, first row on the left, whose grandparents were forced apart by the 1923 Chinese Exclusion Act, celebrates Christmas with his family in 1971. (Henry Yu)

When Yu was three or four years old, he'd visit Chinatown with his grandfather. As soon as they'd walk into a cafe, his grandfather's friends would light up and shower the young boy with candies and treats.

Yu said he realized later that his grandfather was "sharing" him with men who would never know what it is like to have a partner, children and grandchildren.

"Those exclusions and those denials of humanity… it's not just about, oh, Chinese couldn't vote. There's also a kind of second-class citizenship and second-class humanity that they were allocated to," Yu said.

An apology and redress


In 2006, former Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a formal apology to the Chinese Canadian community in the House of Commons.

Landy Anderson's grandfather, Ralph Kung Kee Lee, witnessed the ceremony. He was 106 years old at the time, and only one of six living head-tax payers left.

Lee arrived in Canada when he was 12 years old, said Anderson. He paid off the $500 head tax by washing dishes at a restaurant in Ontario, and then by maintaining the Canadian Pacific Railway — the same railway that around 1,000 Chinese labourers from a previous generation had died building.


Ralph Kung Kee Lee, left, was one of six living head tax payers who witnessed former Prime Minister Stephen Harper's formal apology to the Chinese Canadian community in 2006. (Landy Anderson)

"To receive this apology, it was this momentous occasion, this historical moment in time," said Anderson, now the chair of the Foundation to Commemorate the Chinese Railroad Workers in Canada.

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"And yet where was everybody else? Where were the 80,000 people that paid the head tax? So many people had died."

The government of Canada also offered family members of head tax payers $20,000 in redress. But for some families, a symbolic apology and payment would never suffice.

Gillian Der, whose paternal great grandfather paid the head tax, said her grandmother refused the redress.

"I don't know that any amount of money really changes what happened," said Der.

"Do I think it would have made [my grandmother's] life and my Yeh Yeh — my grandfather's — life easier? Yeah. And that makes me sad.

"At the same time, I think it was kind of like a slap in the face to a colonial government that was trying to make amends and cover things up by throwing money at the problem when we still have considerable anti-Asian racism in the country."

Surge in anti-Asian racism

Anti-Asian racism in Canada has surged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Last year, a survey by the Chinese Canadian National Council Toronto Chapter (CNCTO) and a grassroots organization called Project 1907 found that there were 943 reports of racist incidents across Canada in 2021 — a 47 per cent increase over 2020.

For some Asian-Canadians, the racism is also internalized.

Toronto lawyer Kate Shao grew up in Winnipeg. Her father came to Canada in the late '80s and tried almost too hard to assimilate, she said. He drove a pickup truck, listened to country music, and would respond in English if people spoke to him in Chinese.

"He thought — and I did for the longest time as well — that if we never acknowledged the fact that we are Chinese, maybe people wouldn't notice," Shao said.

For years, Shao grappled with the shame she felt about being Chinese. During the pandemic, she said strangers would tell her the COVID-19 virus was her fault, and to go back to her country.

When Shao learned about Canada's history of anti-Chinese racism, something clicked.
"The historical legacies of racism — the Exclusion Act, the head tax — puts what happened in the last three years in context, and quite frankly, they make perfect sense," she said.

Being the 'perpetual foreigner'

Canada has a long history of scapegoating the Asian community for societal problems, said Yu, pointing to Japanese internment during the Second World War as just one example.

This history could also explain why, as allegations of foreign interference in Canadian elections surface, some Chinese Canadian politicians might have felt the need to defend themselves as loyal Canadian citizens, Yu said.
Alison Gu, a city councillor in Burnaby, B.C., and Der's partner, said Chinese Canadians are often made to feel like the "perpetual foreigner," no matter how long they've been in this country.

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Alison Gu, left, sits on Burnaby City Council, which is launching a review of historic discrimination against Chinese Canadians. Gu's partner Gillian Der, right, descended from Canadian Pacific Railway builders and head tax payers. (Vivian Luk)

That precarious sense of belonging can be traced back to the history of exclusion, she said.

"This idea that you were never supposed to be successful, nor were you ever supposed to last this long here, and this resiliency, this model minority, that we have survived here despite all of the barriers put in place to prevent our success — that breeds a sense of hostility," she said.

100 years later

Across the country, governments are marking the 100th anniversary of the Chinese Exclusion Act.

The City of Burnaby is launching a review of historic discrimination by the municipal government against the Chinese Canadian community.

There was also a national remembrance event in the Senate of Canada Chamber on June 23.
And on July 1, the Chinese Canadian Museum — the first national museum dedicated to Chinese Canadians' history and contributions — opens in Vancouver. It received $5.1 million from the federal government.

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As part of the 1923 Chinese Exclusion Act, Chinese immigrants and Canadian-born Chinese people were required to carry immigration certificates. (Chinese Canadian Museum)

In a statement in May, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said: "As we reflect with regret on the shameful legacy of the Chinese Exclusion Act, we recommit to learning from the mistakes of our past to do better today.

"Together, we will fight anti-Asian racism and all forms of intolerance, hate, and discrimination to build a stronger, more inclusive, and more equitable Canada for future generations."

While Yu said he applauds the government for investing in the museum, he questions the characterization of the Chinese Exclusion Act as a "mistake."

"These were actually conscious, deliberate, planned, effective acts," he said.

"It was an efficient implementation of white supremacy. And that full power of the state didn't end with the 1923 Exclusion Act."

"We are still living those legacies."

ABOUT THE AUTHOR​


1688225667301.pngVivian Luk

Vivian Luk is a journalist and producer at CBC Vancouver. She's contributed stories to various CBC Radio One programs and is the producer behind the award-winning podcast, Sanctioned: The Arrest of a Telecom Giant. Follow her on Twitter: @vivluk.

With files from Lu Zhou

 
最后编辑:
Today is Canada Day. It marks the 100 years anniversary of the Chinese Exclusion Act.

On July 1, 1923, the Canadian government introduced a new Chinese Immigration Act, commonly known as the Chinese Exclusion Act, to stop Chinese immigration. The Act was the culmination of widespread anti-Chinese racism and policies increasing in Canada since the 19th century.



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In a statement in May, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said: "As we reflect with regret on the shameful legacy of the Chinese Exclusion Act, we recommit to learning from the mistakes of our past to do better today.

While Henry Yu, a historian at the UBC, and his grandfather arrived in Canada in 1923 and paid the $500 head tax. said he applauds the government for investing in the museum, he questions the characterization of the Chinese Exclusion Act as a "mistake."

"These were actually conscious, deliberate, planned, effective acts," he said.

"It was an efficient implementation of white supremacy. And that full power of the state didn't end with the 1923 Exclusion Act."

"We are still living those legacies."

"Those exclusions and those denials of humanity… it's not just about, oh, Chinese couldn't vote. There's also a kind of second-class citizenship and second-class humanity that they were allocated to,"
Yu said.

CFCers, don't act like 10 years old and look over your shoulders to sneer BLM, no matter where you come from, Shanghai. Beijing, HK. Taiwan, or any Asian country, fighting white supremacy racism as same as our black brothers.
 

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CFC上某些人假装身边没有歧视,假装已经进入主流,却时刻监督万里之外自己鄙视的中国,这是什么样的精神...
 
哈哈,确实好多煞笔根本不明白什么是种族主义,什么是歧视,什么是文化差异,不过要说歧视,我最歧视的是白左,现在各种乱象,妖蛾子,都是从这个群体中孕育出来的。
 
去问问这里的人,洋人和这里长大的人,有几个知道“白左”这词的?他们可能会回答不 make sense.这词本身就是某些中国人造出来的。
 
去问问这里的人,洋人和这里长大的人,有几个知道“白左”这词的?他们可能会回答不 make sense.这词本身就是某些中国人造出来的。
白左这个词已经进入词典里,我记得卡尔森在节目里说过这个。不过真白左基本是井蛙,可能没听过这次词。
 
1688336937007.png


Baizuo (发音 bye-tswaw)

真难为西人,找不到对应。茫然得很。

造这么个词,自以为融入主流,除了Carlson力推,还有几人知道这么深奥的神秘的词。
 
有些不是华人的混蛋在这里捣乱的。

特别是那些信教的白痴读了圣经后就疯狂地认为自己是这里的精英了。

歧视以前有,现在有,以后还会有。关键是要自己做好,要超越别人,要有实力。华人移民过来的要多团结,多合作。那些信教的,搞民运,法轮功的都是在自欺欺人。那些蠢货不懂中国进步了对他们和他们的孩子在这里的生活是有正面影响的。

一个不能团结的群体是没有希望的,会一直被歧视的。印度人的团结是非常值得华人学习的。

"那些蠢货不懂中国进步了对他们和他们的孩子在这里的生活是有正面影响的。"

这个”正面”影响就是为了找个“李刚”当爸,为自己在这里的不当行为找包庇。没想到的是中共在世界上的行为让华裔普遍受牵连,非但未蹅到油反而被看低,大受鄙视。

我们应该做的是吸收西方的博爱平等,造福于社会,这也是为我们的出生国增光,为加拿大添彩的正道,而不是所谓的爱国,想沾中国的光。爱因斯坦离开德国后就说永不回去, 而他对社会的贡献让德国永远把他视为德国人。让我们为出生地增光而不是它的光。
 
"那些蠢货不懂中国进步了对他们和他们的孩子在这里的生活是有正面影响的。"

这个”正面”影响就是为了找个“李刚”当爸,为自己在这里的不当行为找包庇。没想到的是中共在世界上的行为让华裔普遍受牵连,非但未蹅到油反而被看低,大受鄙视。

我们应该做的是吸收西方的博爱平等,造福于社会,这也是为我们的出生国增光,为加拿大添彩的正道,而不是所谓的爱国,想沾中国的光。爱因斯坦离开德国后就说永不回去, 而他对社会的贡献让德国永远把他视为德国人。让我们为出生地增光而不是它的光。

一般他第一帖回你都会称呼蠢货,或者,你有病吗。第二贴回应一般会有生殖器出现。
 
天天跟西人说这些中文词条,自以为歧视白左叫融入主流吗,这叫向西方传播中华文化,逆向输出。

哈哈,中国向西方逆向输出了一次价值观

May 20, 2017 — 白左(读作by`tswaw)是中文的一种称呼,指称某些天真的西方受过高等教育的人士,这些人支持和平与平等,只是单纯为了满足自身的道德优越感。白左只关心 ...

我没有查过都有哪些中文词条进入英文字典,听说的有,people maintain people see, long time no see, no zuo no die, 前两个好歹还全部是英文字,说英语的人还能看懂字面意思,虽然显然不符合英语的习惯,而zuo连对应的英文都找不到,只好用拼音,强行输出,老外自己琢磨去吧。

不知白左进入英文字典的英文是什么?白左直译对应的英文不难找,white left,但这次不make sense, 所以看到了多种的对应英文:
Baizuo
Regressive left
White left
White leftist
Libtard

除了川粉,有几个人明白?中国人造出这词,符合川普起外号,贴标签,扣帽子的做法,道理说不过,先贴个标签。

因为这词最初是作为亚裔黄人,用来鄙视,歧视极个别西方支持中国的白人,比如寒春夫妇等,所以这词在西方说不通,白人和左派联系起来根本说不通。

Wiki:

起源和演进​

传播学研究者方可成认为,该词最早出现于人人网用户、右翼自由意志主义者和市场原教旨主义者“李硕”发表的文章《西方白左和中国爱国科学家的伪道德》,批评西方同情共产党中国的左翼人士(举的例子是乔姆斯基阳早寒春夫妇),主要指的是经济和政治思想的左翼[2][4][a]。之后经过演化和概念变形,至今其“左”仅指社会议题上之左右翼,已与经济思想的左右翼无关。在2016年美国总统选举期间,“白左”开始被中国网民广泛使用[5]
 
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