美国CIA被曝利用瑞士加密公司窃听120国

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  • 美国CIA被曝利用瑞士加密公司窃听120国
    来源:观察者网

    (文/观察者网 霍思铭)“这是本世纪最好的情报行动。”西方媒体曝光,美国中央情报局(CIA)自二战后长期控制一家瑞士全球加密机公司,借此窃听全球多国的最高机密。

    英国《卫报》2月11日报道,瑞士政府下令对一家位于楚格市的全球加密机公司进行调查。此前,这家名为Crypto的公司被曝出遭美国和西德情报部门控制长达数十年。《华盛顿邮报》表示,该公司自二战以来就长期与美国国防部合作,是全球加密设备技术的主导者。

    《华盛顿邮报》和德国电视二台(ZDF)通过情报机构的内部行动记录得知,Crypto公司销售的产品中被植入了加密漏洞,这使得美国中央情报局(CIA)和西德的德国联邦情报局(BND)能够窃听他们的对手和盟友,同时从中获利数百万美元。



    Crypto位于楚格市的旧总部 图片来源:《华盛顿邮报》
    “这是本世纪最好的情报行动。”CIA的报告中总结到:“外国政府向美国和西德支付了大量的资金,获取的是至少两个(可能多达5-6个)国家能看到他们最高机密的‘特权’。”《卫报》称,这份报告中提到的“5-6个国家”可能指的是美、英、加、澳、新组成的“五眼联盟”。
    该行动代号为“知识宝库”(Thesaurus),在上世纪80年代更名为“卢比孔河”(Rubicon),瑞士国防部发言人卡罗莱娜·博伦在一份声明中表示:“这次事件可以追溯到1945年,在现在的环境下,很难进行解释和重现。”

    报道称,该公司创始人鲍里斯·哈格林在上世纪20年代俄国革命期间逃到瑞典,1940年纳粹德军占领挪威时,他逃往美国,将便携式加密机卖给了美军,并与“美国密码学之父”弗里德曼成为了好友。1951年,当哈格林与弗里德曼参加晚宴时,他与美国情报机构达成协议,将公司迁往瑞士,并仅销售先进的加密机给那些美国批准的国家。



    哈格林卖给美军的M-209便携式加密机 图片来源:《华盛顿邮报》
    在60年代,加密技术由机械发展到电子加密后,美国国家安全局(NSA)操纵了Crypto公司的算法。1967年推出的H-460型加密机,内部算法完全由NSA设计。该公司当时制造两个版本的机器——供给“对美友好政府”使用的“安全版”和给其他国家使用的“可操纵版”。《华盛顿邮报》在报道中将这一段历史取名为“美丽新世界”。

    1970年,CIA和BND收购了Crypto公司。报道称,根据德方的纪录,CIA和BND每年瓜分了Crypto赚取的利润,CIA特工对BND方面“忙于赚钱”感到不满,经常提醒德国人:“这是个情报行动,而不是个赚大钱的企业。”BND方面则对美国的“希望监控其最亲密的盟友”感到震惊,因为美方甚至将意大利、希腊、土耳其、西班牙等北约盟国列为了目标。

    仅仅到了1975年,Crypto公司的销售额就从五年前的1500万瑞士法郎增长到了5100万瑞士法郎(约合1900万美元)。因为害怕遭到曝光和失去了德国政府高层的支持,BND在90年代初东西德统一时,将公司的股份以1700万美元的价格卖给了美方。



    H-460型加密机,NSA设计了其内部算法 图片来源:《华盛顿邮报》
    由于怀疑该公司的背景,中国和苏联都没有购买Crypto的加密机,但这些设备被卖给了其他120多个国家。《华盛顿邮报》在报道中写到,这家公司的客户包括伊朗、拉美的军政府、互为对手的巴基斯坦和印度,甚至梵蒂冈。

    报道称,NSA的窃听列表中有三个重要代号,A代表苏联,B代表亚洲,G代表世界其他地区。而在80年代,“G”地区中一半以上的情报都是通过Crypto加密机传播的。报道评论称:“整个80年代,Crypto的主要客户名单简直是全球动荡地区的目录。”1981年,沙特阿拉伯是Crypto的最大客户,其次是伊朗、意大利、印度尼西亚、伊拉克、利比亚、约旦和韩国。



    卡特与萨达特举行会谈 图片来源:《华盛顿邮报》
    在该行动的巅峰时期,“知识宝库”为美国提供了强大的情报优势。在1978年美国前总统卡特与埃及前总统萨达特举行埃及-以色列和平协议会谈时,美国能够监听萨达特与开罗的所有通信。1979年伊朗人质危机期间,CIA和NSA也借此监听伊朗革命政府。在两伊战争的十年时间里,美国甚至截获了19000条加密机发送的伊朗情报。

    在1986年的柏林舞厅爆炸案中,美国前总统罗纳德·里根表示,美国截获到了“利比亚官员向上级汇报袭击成功”的情报,这引起了利比亚和伊朗政府对Crypto的疑心。根据CIA的记录,在马岛战争期间,美国还利用阿根廷对于Crypto加密设备的依赖,将截获的阿根廷军事计划泄露给了英国。

    报道称,Crypto的大部分员工都不知道该公司的秘密,但在1977年,还是有一位工程师对算法产生怀疑,他前往大马士革,修复了叙利亚政府使用的产品中的漏洞后,遭到Crypto解雇。



    该公司目前提供的部分加密设备 图片来源:Crypto International Group官网
    《华盛顿邮报》表示,CIA直到2018年还在利用这家公司,之后将该公司资产卖给了两家私人企业。其中一家名为CyOne Security的公司发表了一份声明,表示对前身Crypto不予置评。

    CyOne Security表示,该公司由瑞士人完全控股,完全独立于前公司,与外国情报机构毫无关联。然而,《卫报》报道称,该公司由Crypto的前员工运营。另一家“Crypto国际集团”也表示,自2018年以来就由瑞士人控股,“与CIA和BND之前和现在都毫无关系。”

    瑞士国防部发言人博伦表示,在媒体曝光后,瑞士政府已任命前联邦最高法院法官官尼克劳斯•奥伯霍尔泽“调查并澄清事实”,并在今年6月向国防部汇报,同时瑞士暂停了Crypto公司的产品出口。

    报道称,这项行动证明了“在广泛销售的通讯设备中植入漏洞,具有巨大的情报价值”。《卫报》评论称,CIA多年来的成功,可能强化了美国目前对中国华为公司设备的怀疑。

     

    lindamy

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    华盛顿邮报长文
    ‘The intelligence coup of the century’

    For decades, the CIA read the encrypted communications of allies and adversaries.
    By Greg Miller Feb. 11, 2020


    In 2020, an investigation carried out by The Washington Post, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), and Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (SRF) revealed that Crypto AG was, in fact, entirely controlled by the CIA and the BND. The project, initially known by codename "Thesaurus" and later as "Rubicon" operated from the end of the Second World War until 2018.


    CNNMoney Switzerland

    This week’s revelations that U.S. and German intelligence services spied on governments worldwide for decades through secret control of a Swiss cryptography company came as no surprise to Robert Rogenmoser, CEO of Zurich-based Securosys. His company, which makes encryption devices used by banks to settle CHF 100 billion in daily transactions, has been trying for years to distinguish itself from Crypto AG. “A crisis is also an opportunity,” Rogenmoser says, explaining why he agreed to speak with CNNMoney’s Olivia Chang at such a sensitive time for the industry.
     

    lindamy

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    刚刚,惊天大丑闻

    2020-02-14 来源:黄生看金融 分类:微信热文 阅读(354) 评论(0)



    今天一大早睁开眼睛,就习惯性的去看新型肺炎的确诊病例增加情况,湖北省武汉市一天就增加了一万多例,当时头嗡得一声响,简直无法相信,后来看了说明,心才平静下来,特殊时期,每个人的心都是悬着的。湖北确诊病例大增,是因为将临床诊断的病例统计进去了,这样虽然会导致短期确诊病例大增,但是能够起到应收尽收的作用,可以尽快将疑似病例清零,让病人得到更好的治疗。再看除湖北之外中国其它地区,可以说数据明显在好转,确诊病例大幅度下降,深圳昨天确诊病例才5例,而治愈出院病例达到了15例,治愈人数远远高于确诊病例,其它省份和地区也同样如此,可见曙光在前。然而,就在中国举国抵抗新型肺炎疫情的时候,美国做了不少落井下石的事情,尤其是一个人做得特别绝,做得特别恶心,这个人就是美国国务卿蓬佩奥,他又公开对中国提出了抵制。在美国全国州长协会会议上,蓬佩奥发表了演讲,他说美国对中国的竞争正在从联邦到地方层面全面展开,要防止中国对美国施加影响、进行渗透,他要求美国地方政府对中国展开竞争,慎重与中国合作。很显然,在中国发生肺炎疫情的时候,中国做出了巨大的牺牲,在中国努力避免新冠病毒蔓延到全球的时候,蓬佩奥竟然要求美国的地方政府与公司展开对中国的竞争,并建议慎重与中国合作,这明显是落井下石的行为,典型的恩将仇报。蓬佩奥就是这样无耻的小人,而且他一向不以此为耻,反而以此为荣,2019年4月在美国德州农工大学蓬佩奥发表了演讲,还专门回答了学生的提问,他说:“当我还是个军校学员的时候,西点军校学生的格言是什么呢?那就是绝不撒谎、欺骗、偷窃,也绝不容忍有此类行为的人;当我是中情局的前局长,我们撒谎,我们欺骗,我们偷窃,我们还有一门课专门来教这个,这才是美国不断探索进去的荣耀。”



    很显然,没有人比蓬佩奥更赤裸裸的表达美国的撒谎、欺骗、盗窃的真实精神,在特朗普上台后,已经不顾任何道德和吃相难看了,过去美国的政府还需要照顾道德方面的约束,要打伊拉克还要找一管洗衣粉,现在暗杀苏莱曼尼哪里需要什么理由,现在打压华为哪里还需要什么理由。也就在刚刚,美国曝出一个惊天大丑闻,美国《华盛顿邮报》、德国电视二台联合公布了一个大丑闻:美国中央情报局过去数十年一直控制瑞士一家公司,通过这家瑞士公司销往全世界上百个国家的加密设备窃取外国政府的通信情报。被美国中情局监听、监视的对象有一百多个国家的政府,包括日本、韩国、土耳其等美国盟友也被监听,可以说美国为了自己的利益,真的是六亲不认,这大概就是蓬佩奥口中说的盗窃吧。这件事情已经成为了国际上的惊天大丑闻,全球各大媒体都在讨论这件事情,《华盛顿邮报》称这是美国中情局最大胆的行为,这必然会引发无数国家的口诛笔伐。这一丑闻最先被瑞士的《日内瓦论坛报》在本周二揭露出来,该报发布的一个调查结果显示,美国中情局通过控制瑞士的一家加密公司对全球120多个国家的军事、外交通信进行了监听、监视,时间长达50年,太吓人了。这家瑞士媒体将这一消息公布后,美国的媒体和德国的媒体迅速跟进,德国这个时候跟进很有意思,一是现在德国和美国之间已经产生了严重的裂痕,他们想知道德国政府被监听、监视的情况。二是德国政府本来就是美国监听的受害者,在斯诺登公布的美国棱镜计划中,连德国总理默克尔的电话都被美国长期监听,这让默克尔勃然大怒,如果不是斯诺登曝出这一消息,德国政府至今还蒙在鼓里。那为什么瑞士这个时候会曝出这个惊天大丑闻呢?而且不惜得罪美国政府。那是因为特朗普政府近期对瑞士下了狠手,准备将瑞士列为汇率操纵国,这让瑞士政府非常气愤,因此作出了反击。在2020年1月份,美国财政部将瑞士列入货币操纵国的观察名单,美国政府认为瑞士与美国的贸易顺差一直在上升,前四季度瑞士对美贸易顺差高达218亿美元,这让特朗普非常不爽。特朗普和美国财政部多次放出狠话,说瑞士政府操纵了汇率,占了美国的便宜,如果不采取措施,美国会将瑞士列入货币操纵国名单,并征收惩罚性关税。可以说,瑞士政府表面上是个中立国,但长期以来一直为美国政府提供了很多服务,现在特朗普政府翻脸不认人,瑞士政府只能曝出过去的一些大料,敲打敲打特朗普政府,如果特朗普政府不知难而退,瑞士政府还可能通过一些渠道公布一些对美国政府不利的消息。因此,瑞士政府和美国政府很可能就此达成某种协议,最终这个惊天大丑闻不了了之,否则双方撕破脸,对谁都没有好处,美国政府的信用扫地,虽然他们本来就没有信用,瑞士也可能会被列为汇率操纵国。但无论如何,这给全世界所有的国家都敲响了警钟,美国政府是不值得信任的,美国正在对全球120多个国家的政府进行监听、监视,现在证据确凿,前有斯诺登的棱镜计划,现有瑞士公司的加密设备监听、监视。这也就是为什么特朗普和蓬佩奥没有任何理由和证据也要打压华为的原因,因为其它国家用了华为的5G设备,美国政府就没办法监听其它国家的政府了,所以特朗普和蓬佩奥才丧心病狂的到处抹黑华为,到处施压要求各国停止使用华为的设备。这一惊天大丑闻的曝出,会让全世界其它国家更加团结,更加会认可华为的产品,而不是采用美国的产品,因此华为会因此而受益,全世界对美国的监听、监视行为都表示愤怒,但是没有实力的愤怒没有任何作用,幸好我们有华为,就有了愤怒和反击的实力。沙场烽火侵胡月,海畔云山拥蓟城,少小虽非投笔吏,论功还欲请长缨!历史上的每次瘟疫,最终会衰退和消失,而股市最终会恢复到原来的水平,这次大调整,反而会让投资价值得到体现,机会永远是在别人恐慌的时候出现。目前上证主板安全指数为84,请继续持有,银行、煤炭安全指数高,券商、水泥安全指数持有,大家要看全部的安全指数,请先在右下角点“在看”,进入公众号点击对话框留言栏输入“安全边际”四个字,就可以免费提起今天的分析。

    希望各位粉丝看完后点右下角的“在看”,以示鼓励,长期坚持原创很不容易,多次想放弃,坚持是一种信仰,专注是一种态度,一路陪伴,一起地老天荒。

    附:独立、理性,心存善良和敬畏,用精炼的语言阐述深刻的金融逻辑,长期坚持原创不易,如文章引起大家共鸣,请大家赞并转发,以支持我继续分析创作,谢谢。

     

    northeast

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    如果这是真的,那美国是真流氓的国家。
     

    向问天

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    美国做这些烂事我一点都不惊讶。
    这个国家从开国的时候就是这样无耻。
     

    春夏秋鼕

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    CIA controlled global encryption company for decades, says report
    Swiss government orders inquiry after revelations Crypto AG was owned and operated by US and German intelligence
    Julian BorgerLast modified on Tue 11 Feb 2020 20.55 GMT

    ‘It was the intelligence coup of the century,’ the CIA report concluded.

    ‘It was the intelligence coup of the century,’ the CIA report concluded. Photograph: Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Images

    The Swiss government has ordered an inquiry into a global encryption company based in Zug following revelations it was owned and controlled for decades by US and German intelligence.

    Encryption weaknesses added to products sold by Crypto AG allowed the CIA and its German counterpart, the BND, to eavesdrop on adversaries and allies alike while earning million of dollars from the sales, according the Washington Post and the German public broadcaster ZDF, based on the agencies’ internal histories of the intelligence operation.

    “It was the intelligence coup of the century,” the CIA report concluded. “Foreign governments were paying good money to the US and West Germany for the privilege of having their most secret communications read by at least two (and possibly as many as five or six) foreign countries.”

    The mention of five or six countries is probably a reference to the Five Eyes electronic intelligence sharing agreement between the US, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

    The operation, codenamed Thesaurus and then renamed Rubicon in 1980s, demonstrated the overwhelming intelligence value of being able to insert flaws into widely sold communications equipment. The CIA’s success over many years is likely to reinforce current US suspicions of equipment made by the Chinese company Huawei.

    Neither China or the Soviet Union bought Crypto encryption devices, suspicious of the company’s origins, but it was sold to more than 100 other countries.

    Carolina Bohren, a spokeswoman for the Swiss defence ministry, said in an emailed statement: “The events under discussion date back to 1945 and are difficult to reconstruct and interpret in the present day context.”

    Bohren said that following media inquiries about the company, the Swiss government appointed a former federal supreme court judge, Niklaus Oberholzer, in January to “investigate and clarify the facts of the matter” and report back to the defence ministry in June.

    Meanwhile, Switzerland has suspended foreign sales of Crypto products.

    At their height, Operations Thesaurus and Rubicon provided the US with a powerful intelligence edge. When Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin were hosted by the former president Jimmy Carter at Camp David in 1978 to negotiate an Egyptian-Israeli peace accord, the US was able to monitor all Sadat’s communications with Cairo.

    Iran was also a Crypto customer, allowing CIA and the National Security Agency (NSA) to spy on the revolutionary government in Tehran during the 1979 hostage crisis. US intelligence was also able to eavesdrop on Libyan officials congratulating each other on the 1986 bombing of a Berlin disco.

    According to the CIA’s history, the US passed on intercepted communications about Argentinian military plans to the UK during the Falklands war, exploiting Argentina’s reliance on Crypto encryption equipment.

    The CIA and BND agreed the purchase of Crypto in 1970 but, fearing exposure, the BND sold its share of the company to the US in the early 1990s. According to the Washington Post, the CIA continued to exploit the company until 2018, when it sold the company’s assets to two private companies.

    One of those companies, CyOne Security, which is run by former top Crypto employees, issued a statement saying it could not comment on Crypto’s history.

    “CyOne Security AG was founded in January 2018. The company operates exclusively in the Swiss market with a focus on state-of-the art security solutions for customers from the Swiss public sector,” the statement said. “Since the start of its business activities, CyOne Security has been 100% owned by four Swiss private individuals. It is completely independent of the former Crypto AG. CyOne Security has no ties with any foreign intelligence services.”

    The firm did not respond to follow-up questions over how it could be completely independent of Crypto, having inherited its top staff.

    Crypto’s foreign sales business was sold to a Swedish entrepreneur, Andreas Linde. He did not immediately respond to a request for comment but expressed shock when informed by journalists last month about Crypto’s history.

    “If what you are saying is true, then absolutely I feel betrayed, and my family feels betrayed, and I feel there will be a lot of employees who will feel betrayed as well as customers,” Linde was quoted as saying by the Washington Post, which described him as “visibly shaken”.

    In a later interview, Linde said his company was checking all its products for hidden vulnerabilities.

    “We have to make a cut as soon as possible with everything that has been linked to Crypto,” he said.

    Crypto’s origins lie in the great conflicts of the 20th century. Its founder, Boris Hagelin, was born in Russia but fled to Sweden during the Russian Revolution. He escaped to the US when the Nazis invaded Norway in 1940, and sold his portable encryption machine to US forces.

    In the US, Hagelin became friends with William Friedman, who is considered the father of American cryptology, and they remained close after Hagelin moved his company to Switzerland after the war. The two men made a secret agreement in 1951, in the Cosmos Club in Washington, to restrict sales of its sophisticated encryption products to countries approved by the US.

    When encryption technology evolved from mechanical to electronic in the 1960s, the NSA manipulated the algorithms used by Crypto devices, so they could be quickly decoded. The company started making two versions of its machines – secure models sold to friendly governments and rigged systems for everyone else – before being taken over outright by the CIA and the BND.

    The security of Crypto equipment began arousing suspicions after Ronald Reagan made public claims about US intercepts of Libyan officials involved in the 1986 bombing of the Berlin disco, La Belle. Iranian intelligence became suspicious and questioned a Crypto salesman, Hans Buehler, but took no action until about six years later, when they arrested Buehler as he was about to fly out of Tehran. Iran released him only after the company agreed to pay $1m, with funds provided by the BND.

    Most of Crypto’s workforce was unaware of the company’s secret, but in 1977, an engineer who had grown suspicious of its algorithms was fired after he traveled to Damascus and fixed the vulnerabilities in the firm’s products operated by the Syrian government.

    The link between US intelligence and Crypto was first reported by the Baltimore Sun in 1995, leading several countries to stop buying from the company. Bizarrely, however, Iran continued to purchase Crypto equipment for several years. Asked why he had not asked more questions about the company he was buying, Linde, the new owner of Crypto International, said he viewed the allegations as “just rumours”.

    As 2020 begins…
    … we’re asking readers, like you, to make a new year contribution in support of the Guardian’s open, independent journalism. This has been a turbulent decade across the world – protest, populism, mass migration and the escalating climate crisis. The Guardian has been in every corner of the globe, reporting with tenacity, rigour and authority on the most critical events of our lifetimes. At a time when factual information is both scarcer and more essential than ever, we believe that each of us deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.
    More people than ever before are reading and supporting our journalism, in more than 180 countries around the world. And this is only possible because we made a different choice: to keep our reporting open for all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford to pay.
    We have upheld our editorial independence in the face of the disintegration of traditional media – with social platforms giving rise to misinformation, the seemingly unstoppable rise of big tech and independent voices being squashed by commercial ownership. The Guardian’s independence means we can set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Our journalism is free from commercial and political bias – never influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This makes us different. It means we can challenge the powerful without fear and give a voice to those less heard.
    None of this would have been attainable without our readers’ generosity – your financial support has meant we can keep investigating, disentangling and interrogating. It has protected our independence, which has never been so critical. We are so grateful.
    As we enter a new decade, we need your support so we can keep delivering quality journalism that’s open and independent. And that is here for the long term. Every reader contribution, however big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as CA$1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you.
     

    向问天

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    CIA controlled global encryption company for decades, says report
    Swiss government orders inquiry after revelations Crypto AG was owned and operated by US and German intelligence
    Julian BorgerLast modified on Tue 11 Feb 2020 20.55 GMT

    ‘It was the intelligence coup of the century,’ the CIA report concluded.

    ‘It was the intelligence coup of the century,’ the CIA report concluded. Photograph: Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Images

    The Swiss government has ordered an inquiry into a global encryption company based in Zug following revelations it was owned and controlled for decades by US and German intelligence.

    Encryption weaknesses added to products sold by Crypto AG allowed the CIA and its German counterpart, the BND, to eavesdrop on adversaries and allies alike while earning million of dollars from the sales, according the Washington Post and the German public broadcaster ZDF, based on the agencies’ internal histories of the intelligence operation.

    “It was the intelligence coup of the century,” the CIA report concluded. “Foreign governments were paying good money to the US and West Germany for the privilege of having their most secret communications read by at least two (and possibly as many as five or six) foreign countries.”

    The mention of five or six countries is probably a reference to the Five Eyes electronic intelligence sharing agreement between the US, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

    The operation, codenamed Thesaurus and then renamed Rubicon in 1980s, demonstrated the overwhelming intelligence value of being able to insert flaws into widely sold communications equipment. The CIA’s success over many years is likely to reinforce current US suspicions of equipment made by the Chinese company Huawei.

    Neither China or the Soviet Union bought Crypto encryption devices, suspicious of the company’s origins, but it was sold to more than 100 other countries.

    Carolina Bohren, a spokeswoman for the Swiss defence ministry, said in an emailed statement: “The events under discussion date back to 1945 and are difficult to reconstruct and interpret in the present day context.”

    Bohren said that following media inquiries about the company, the Swiss government appointed a former federal supreme court judge, Niklaus Oberholzer, in January to “investigate and clarify the facts of the matter” and report back to the defence ministry in June.

    Meanwhile, Switzerland has suspended foreign sales of Crypto products.

    At their height, Operations Thesaurus and Rubicon provided the US with a powerful intelligence edge. When Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin were hosted by the former president Jimmy Carter at Camp David in 1978 to negotiate an Egyptian-Israeli peace accord, the US was able to monitor all Sadat’s communications with Cairo.

    Iran was also a Crypto customer, allowing CIA and the National Security Agency (NSA) to spy on the revolutionary government in Tehran during the 1979 hostage crisis. US intelligence was also able to eavesdrop on Libyan officials congratulating each other on the 1986 bombing of a Berlin disco.

    According to the CIA’s history, the US passed on intercepted communications about Argentinian military plans to the UK during the Falklands war, exploiting Argentina’s reliance on Crypto encryption equipment.

    The CIA and BND agreed the purchase of Crypto in 1970 but, fearing exposure, the BND sold its share of the company to the US in the early 1990s. According to the Washington Post, the CIA continued to exploit the company until 2018, when it sold the company’s assets to two private companies.

    One of those companies, CyOne Security, which is run by former top Crypto employees, issued a statement saying it could not comment on Crypto’s history.

    “CyOne Security AG was founded in January 2018. The company operates exclusively in the Swiss market with a focus on state-of-the art security solutions for customers from the Swiss public sector,” the statement said. “Since the start of its business activities, CyOne Security has been 100% owned by four Swiss private individuals. It is completely independent of the former Crypto AG. CyOne Security has no ties with any foreign intelligence services.”

    The firm did not respond to follow-up questions over how it could be completely independent of Crypto, having inherited its top staff.

    Crypto’s foreign sales business was sold to a Swedish entrepreneur, Andreas Linde. He did not immediately respond to a request for comment but expressed shock when informed by journalists last month about Crypto’s history.

    “If what you are saying is true, then absolutely I feel betrayed, and my family feels betrayed, and I feel there will be a lot of employees who will feel betrayed as well as customers,” Linde was quoted as saying by the Washington Post, which described him as “visibly shaken”.

    In a later interview, Linde said his company was checking all its products for hidden vulnerabilities.

    “We have to make a cut as soon as possible with everything that has been linked to Crypto,” he said.

    Crypto’s origins lie in the great conflicts of the 20th century. Its founder, Boris Hagelin, was born in Russia but fled to Sweden during the Russian Revolution. He escaped to the US when the Nazis invaded Norway in 1940, and sold his portable encryption machine to US forces.

    In the US, Hagelin became friends with William Friedman, who is considered the father of American cryptology, and they remained close after Hagelin moved his company to Switzerland after the war. The two men made a secret agreement in 1951, in the Cosmos Club in Washington, to restrict sales of its sophisticated encryption products to countries approved by the US.

    When encryption technology evolved from mechanical to electronic in the 1960s, the NSA manipulated the algorithms used by Crypto devices, so they could be quickly decoded. The company started making two versions of its machines – secure models sold to friendly governments and rigged systems for everyone else – before being taken over outright by the CIA and the BND.

    The security of Crypto equipment began arousing suspicions after Ronald Reagan made public claims about US intercepts of Libyan officials involved in the 1986 bombing of the Berlin disco, La Belle. Iranian intelligence became suspicious and questioned a Crypto salesman, Hans Buehler, but took no action until about six years later, when they arrested Buehler as he was about to fly out of Tehran. Iran released him only after the company agreed to pay $1m, with funds provided by the BND.

    Most of Crypto’s workforce was unaware of the company’s secret, but in 1977, an engineer who had grown suspicious of its algorithms was fired after he traveled to Damascus and fixed the vulnerabilities in the firm’s products operated by the Syrian government.

    The link between US intelligence and Crypto was first reported by the Baltimore Sun in 1995, leading several countries to stop buying from the company. Bizarrely, however, Iran continued to purchase Crypto equipment for several years. Asked why he had not asked more questions about the company he was buying, Linde, the new owner of Crypto International, said he viewed the allegations as “just rumours”.

    As 2020 begins…
    … we’re asking readers, like you, to make a new year contribution in support of the Guardian’s open, independent journalism. This has been a turbulent decade across the world – protest, populism, mass migration and the escalating climate crisis. The Guardian has been in every corner of the globe, reporting with tenacity, rigour and authority on the most critical events of our lifetimes. At a time when factual information is both scarcer and more essential than ever, we believe that each of us deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.
    More people than ever before are reading and supporting our journalism, in more than 180 countries around the world. And this is only possible because we made a different choice: to keep our reporting open for all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford to pay.
    We have upheld our editorial independence in the face of the disintegration of traditional media – with social platforms giving rise to misinformation, the seemingly unstoppable rise of big tech and independent voices being squashed by commercial ownership. The Guardian’s independence means we can set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Our journalism is free from commercial and political bias – never influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This makes us different. It means we can challenge the powerful without fear and give a voice to those less heard.
    None of this would have been attainable without our readers’ generosity – your financial support has meant we can keep investigating, disentangling and interrogating. It has protected our independence, which has never been so critical. We are so grateful.
    As we enter a new decade, we need your support so we can keep delivering quality journalism that’s open and independent. And that is here for the long term. Every reader contribution, however big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as CA$1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you.

    在美国全方位打压华为的时候,炒作这件事显然是别有用心啊!
     

    lindamy

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    这事都50多年了,不是很震惊,所幸中国俄国不用这家公司的产品,这次又被翻出来,据说是因为美国要将瑞士列为货币操纵国,惹毛了他。
     

    贵圈

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    老向上面这贴说到了根

    老美有底气有这个软实力

    摆明了,世界肯定要有一个大哥看着你。

    你的选择无非是。让美国看着。还是让中国看着。
     

    向问天

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    老向上面这贴说到了根

    老美有底气有这个软实力

    摆明了,世界肯定要有一个大哥看着你。

    你的选择无非是。让美国看着。还是让中国看着。

    首先这不是我的意思。
    其次,英国前两天说的很清楚,它需要重新平衡。英国排斥华为自己会损失几百亿英镑,但是美国一毛不拔,损失完全由英国自己承担。英国不干。

    另外,意大利,西班牙,葡萄牙,法国,俄罗斯,印度,巴西,等等,都用华为。美国成了孤岛。跟一个孤岛绑在一起,英国傻吗?
     

    光放

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    中国外交部应该给蓬佩奥一个和里皮一样年薪的offer,来华培训中国外交官。
     
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