• BBC 文章,Crypto 丑闻动摇瑞士的中立国地位。

    Swiss Crypto AG spying scandal shakes reputation for neutrality
    By Imogen FoulkesBBC News, Bern
    • 16 February 2020
    A Swiss soldier stands in front of a Swiss flag

    Image copyrightGETTY IMAGESImage caption

    Has the Crypto AG scandal shattered Swiss neutrality?

    It's hard to exaggerate just how much the Crypto AG scandal has shaken Switzerland.

    For decades, US and German intelligence used this Swiss company's encoding devices to spy on other countries, and the revelations this week have provoked outrage.

    From the Cold War into the 2000s, Crypto AG sold the devices to more than 120 governments worldwide. The machines were encrypted but it emerged this week that the CIA and Germany's BND had rigged the devices so they could crack the codes and intercept thousands of messages.
    Rumours had circulated in the past but now everybody knows.

    Why Swiss neutrality matters

    There are only a handful of countries on the planet that have chosen neutrality; Austria is one, Sweden another. But no country has made a status symbol out of neutrality like the Swiss.

    Now that the Crypto AG scandal has emerged in all its tawdry detail, there's not a newspaper or broadcaster in the country that is not questioning Switzerland's neutrality.

    "It's shattered," is a common phrase.
    A federal judge is already on the case and politicians across the spectrum are calling for a parliamentary commission of inquiry.

    This is a country whose neutrality has allowed it to represent US interests in Iran for 30 years, and Tehran's interests in Washington. Switzerland negotiated hard behind the scenes with the US to allow deliveries of humanitarian aid to Iran to ease the worst effects of sanctions.

    It is also a country that sold flawed encryption machines, bearing that Made in Switzerland label, to Iran, so that Washington could eavesdrop.

    Swiss company Crypto made CX-52 encryption machines

    Image caption

    Swiss company Crypto made CX-52 encryption machines

    Swiss neutrality is revered as if it were in the country's DNA, part of a unique national identity, and not the pragmatic policy of a small country that hired mercenaries to the rest of Europe until its leaders decided not fighting at all might be safer.

    "We survived two world wars," is a phrase you often hear in Switzerland. It can be irritating to citizens of other European countries who also survived those wars, in rather more harrowing fashion.

    But it's true, Switzerland's neutrality kept it out of those wars, and in 1945 Switzerland's economy and infrastructure emerged, phoenix-like and unscathed, while its neighbours swept up the ash and the rubble.

    How the Swiss made themselves useful

    Neutrality, however, is not some force field which keeps enemies out. Not a magic word which you can chant and the bad guys will leave you alone.

    In World War Two, Switzerland did all sorts of things to make sure its neighbours stayed away.

    Mass mobilisation, sending every man between 18 and 60 to defend the borders, mining the tunnels and alpine passes, that was one thing: and until recently that took pride of place in Swiss history books.

    But there was something else, equally important: Switzerland made itself useful, to all sides.

    Swiss soldiers in 1943

    Image copyrightGETTY IMAGESImage captionSwitzerland's forces

    barricaded its borders in World War Two

    Nazi Germany found a safe place for its looted art and gold in Swiss banks. It sent trains full of weapons across Switzerland to support Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

    At the same time, Switzerland's head of the armed forces, General Henri Guisan, was having secret chats with the French about fighting together should both countries be invaded.

    There's a street named after Guisan in every Swiss town.

    Meanwhile the US intelligence-gathering body, the Office of Strategic Services, sent Allen Dulles to Europe.
    Dulles set up his office in the Swiss capital, Bern, and stayed there for the rest of war, spying on the Germans. He later became head of the CIA.

    Who knew what?

    In the 1990s the Swiss did a lot of soul searching about World War Two.

    The history books were rewritten to include the shameful policy of turning Jewish refugees back at the borders. Commissions of inquiry were set up, memorials held, and a Swiss government minister, Kaspar Villiger, formally apologised.

    That's the same Kaspar Villiger who now stands accused, while serving as defence minister in the 1990s, of knowing that the CIA controlled Crypto AG, and was selling flawed encryption machines around the world in order to spy on foreign governments.
    Mr Villiger, it must be stressed, denies this. But many questions about Crypto were raised in Switzerland in the 1990s, so it's curious that the defence minister didn't hear them, or didn't follow them up.

    Kaspar Villiger in 1995

    Image copyrightGETTY IMAGESImage caption
    Kaspar Villiger served as defence minister in the 1990s

    Asked about Mr Villiger on Swiss TV, rotating federal president Simonetta Sommaruga, said the speculation made no sense. "We will discuss it when we have the facts," she said.

    Can Switzerland have it both ways?

    How on earth can those two concepts - neutrality and cooperation - exist together?

    Perhaps in the same way that Switzerland proudly does not fight wars, but sells plenty of weapons.

    Or the way in which its bankers used to say "money doesn't smell". In other words, they were happy to look after it whatever bloody conflict, brutal dictator, drug baron, or tax scam it had come from.

    Or, more charitably, Switzerland wanted to survive the Cold War. Its values were Western, why not turn a blind eye to a few covert operations by Europe's protector in chief, the US, at one of Switzerland's world-class precision engineering companies?

    To be fair, there are millions of Swiss who think deeply about these things, and who have campaigned hard for a less self-interested policy, certainly when it comes to banking and arms trading, both of which are now subject to much stricter regulation.

    But still, every few years it seems the Swiss get a wake-up call about their neutrality.

    They have to learn all over again that it's not a shining beacon of hope at the heart of Europe. Rather it is a pragmatic and often grubby survival tactic in a continent with a very bloody history.

    And sometimes, as with Crypto AG, that pragmatism, together with a desire to see the myth of neutrality rather than the reality, lead to some very questionable decisions.





    Has ‘Crypto Leaks’ exposed Swiss neutrality as a sham?
    By Kathrin Ammann Feb 14, 2020 - 08:07
    Bundeshaus mit Schweizer Fahnen unter einem dunklen Himmel.

    Dark clouds over parliament in Bern: who knew what about the Crypto spy affair - and when?
    (Keystone / Anthony Anex)
    The spying affair surrounding the Swiss company Crypto has also touched the heart of Swiss identity: neutrality. Swiss politicians, historians and the media are debating the possible consequences of the manipulated cipher devices for the country’s credibility.
    It is still unclear who knew what and when about the activities of the CIA and West German intelligence services with the Zug-based encryption company.
    This is the key question, because Switzerland is not responsible under international law for the actions of private companies on its territory, as historian Georg Kreis explains in an interview with the Tages-Anzeiger. But the situation would be different, he added, if the government or the secret service had been informed.
    Jean-Louis Jeanmaire am Pult

    Trust no oneBusted! Swiss spy scandals through the years
    As Switzerland reels from a decades-old spying affair, here are some of the country’s most scandalous cases of espionage and data theft.
    By Keystone-SDA
    “Even the [Swiss] intelligence service must subordinate itself to the official doctrine of neutrality,” Kreis said. Otherwise, federal employees would have violated Switzerland’s neutrality – which appears to be the case.
    For it is clear from the documents available to Swiss public television, SRF, among others, that the Federal Intelligence Service (FIS) knew about the operation. Previous investigations had come to a different conclusion.
    Leaders of political parties from left to right have expressed their shock.
    “From the point of view of a neutral and sovereign small state, this is obviously absolutely unacceptable,” Albert Rösti, president of the right-wing Swiss People’s Party, told SRF.
    Christian Levrat, president of the left-wing Social Democratic Party, says the affair takes on a “different dimension” when “even allies of the United States have been bugged with Switzerland’s knowledge”.
    Georg Kreis says it is common knowledge that Switzerland was a “Western neutral”. In general, he says, Switzerland’s neutrality policy has always been very elastic: “We’ve never been an absolutely neutral neutral.”
    ‘Swiss sham’
    Jo Lang, a historian and left-wing politician, has dealt intensively in recent decades with surveillance, the keeping of files and Swiss neutrality. He believes that Switzerland must apologise to those countries that bought manipulated cipher machines under the guise of Swiss neutrality.
    Kreis sees the political damage being greater at home than abroad, even though the affair might have damaged confidence in the good offices of Swiss diplomats. He says the revelations “clashed with the prevailing understanding of neutrality”.
    It’s true that the Swiss people idealise the concept of neutrality, he adds, “but if the tensions with Realpolitik were to become too great, the people would no longer support the policy”.
    “The revelation hurts,” writes Swiss newspaper Der Bund. “It shows that the neutrality that until now has been sacred to the Swiss people is often hypocritical.” In its editorial it describes neutrality as “a Swiss sham” and “a piece of folklore”.
    Should it turn out that the espionage operation had the blessing of the Federal Council and that the FIS actively benefited from the information, it would be “a disaster for Switzerland’s neutral self-image”, writes the Neue Zürcher Zeitung. “The aim now is to dispel all doubts about Switzerland’s credibility as a mediator in conflicts or as a reliable business location.”
    We’ll know more by the end of June at the latest. Former federal judge Niklaus Oberholzer has been commissioned by the Federal Council to deliver an investigation report on the Crypto affair by then.
    Parliament will also become involved. On Thursday it was announced that a parliamentary control delegation would investigate the matter to try to find out how much the authorities knew. Meanwhile, calls for a parliamentary commission of inquiry – which has only ever taken place four times in Swiss history, most recently in 1996 – are getting louder.
    An encryption device

    Press review Latest spy scandal ‘shatters Swiss neutrality’, say papers
    A spying affair going back decades is a blow to Switzerland’s neutrality, credibility and even sovereignty, say Swiss newspapers.
    By Thomas Stephens
    (Translated from German by Thomas Stephens), swissinfo.ch
    Why Switzerland struggles with dirty gold
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