What to expect when COVID-19 vaccines arrive in Canada?加拿大疫苗

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新冠疫苗:世界各地和你所在地方疫苗接种进展到什么程度?​

2021年2月19日

An illustration of a needle and a vaccine dose


新冠疫苗大规模接种正在世界各地铺开。不少国家和地区按年龄确定先后顺序,有些还设定了接种目标。不过,其它国家和地区情况并不是那么清晰。

群体接种新冠疫苗事关生与死。这个过程涉及到复杂的科学研发、跨国公司的参与、各国、各级政府的承诺和食言、大量监管机制和政策,以及官僚体系的繁文缛节。

所有这一切都意味着,新冠疫苗接种的全球普及不可能一帆风顺。

经济学人智库(EIU)全球预测部负责人阿迦瑟·德马雷斯(Agathe Demarais)的团队对新冠疫苗全球接种这个课题做了全面研究。

他们分析了全世界疫苗产能,以及医疗服务基础设施,评估在现有条件下是否能满足群体接种疫苗的需要、不同国家和地区的人口和财力因素。

这项研究的发现中有不少似乎印证了可以预见的贫富分隔线。英国和美国目前疫苗供应充足,因为它们有足够的财力投入疫苗研发,从而在全球居于领先地位。

诸如加拿大和欧盟等发达世界成员则落后于英美

绝大多数低收入国家还没有开始普及疫苗接种,但在介乎贫富两端之间的中间地带,也有一些出人意料的情况。

下面是全球疫苗接种进展实时动态图。

全球疫苗接種進程​


注:此處訊息雖然定期更新,但仍可能無法及時反映各國最新匯總數據。疫苗接種總數指的是株數,非人數

來源: Our World in Data, ONS, gov.uk 資訊頁面

最後更新時間:2021年2月18日


地图

疫苗


加拿大决定从欧洲药厂采购疫苗,以防美国特朗普政府发布疫苗出口禁令导致意外,但看来这一步棋下错了。

欧洲的药厂也在为供应链问题纠结。近期出口禁令的威胁来自欧盟,而不是美国。

德马雷斯说:“只要欧洲市场疫苗供应短缺,我认为加拿大大量进口疫苗几乎没有可能。”

也有些国家的情况比预期的要好。比如塞尔维亚的疫苗接种比例在欧盟名列前茅,原因除了群体接种计划效率高,还得益于“疫苗外交” — 中国和俄国为了在东欧扩大各自的影响展开的角力。

塞尔维亚已经获得中俄两国的疫苗。在实际接种过程中,大部分人注射的是中国国药疫苗。这也意味着将来如果需要后续追加注射,通常还会用中国疫苗。
阿联酋也相当依赖中国,接种大部分用国药疫苗,而且正在建国药疫苗生产基地。

德马雷斯说:“中国带来生产设施和技术工人,所以中国在阿联酋的影响将会长期持续。另外,接受方政府将来如果想对中国说‘不’的时候,会发现处境非常微妙、复杂。”

地图

EIU 又译经济学人智库

但是,在疫苗研发和生产领域占据全球领先地位的国家,本国民众未必优先得到接种。

EIU的研究预计,中国和印度作为世界新冠疫苗生产大国,自己国内的接种普及率可能在2022年底达到充分的标准。主要原因是两国人口巨大,而医疗从业人员短缺。

印度的疫苗生产成功故事的主角当属一个名叫阿达尔·普纳瓦拉(Adar Poonawalla)的人。他的公司,印度血清研究所(Serum Institute of India ) 是当今世界最大的疫苗厂商,也是印度两大疫苗供应商之一,同时还向巴西、摩洛哥、孟加拉和南非出口。

普纳瓦拉现在担心的是全球疫苗产能不足以满足需求。他认为至少在2021年第二季度前,疫苗供应不会显著增加。

孟买接种

图像来源,EPA
Covax 呼吁世界各国慷慨捐款

疫苗产能扩大、产量提高需要时间,他说,即便SII也没有可以点石成金的魔术棒。

普纳瓦拉之所以领先同侪,是因为他2020年3月就开始兴建生产车间,储存化学材料和玻璃瓶等必需品。

疫苗的生产过程要求很高,许多环节可能出错。现在才开始投产的疫苗厂商,第一批产品下线估计要到几个月之后。同样,针对变异毒株的追加疫苗的生产也同样需要时间。

普纳瓦拉表示,他生产的疫苗优先供应印度,然后通过世界卫生组织(WHO)、全球疫苗联盟计划(Gavi)和CEPI 中心共同倡导的Covax计划向非洲提供。
根据Covax计划,买不起疫苗的国家可以通过一项特殊基金免费获得疫苗,其他国家需要付钱购买,但理论上讲,通过集体议价谈成的价格比各国单独跟药厂采购拿到的价格要低。

Covex 疫苗付运计划从2021年2月下旬开始。不过,这个计划现在受到影响,因为参与国中有不少还在单独跟药厂谈判。

普纳瓦拉说,非洲大陆上每一个国家的领导都跟他联络过,希望单独获得疫苗供应。Covex 谈成的价格是每剂4美元。


新冠疫情:疫苗体现出的国家贫富差距

德马雷斯对Covax 最终能够取得的成效不是非常乐观。即便一切都按计划顺利实施,今年内非洲大陆接种率也只能达到人口的20-27%。

根据她为EIU 所做的预测,部分国家在2023年之前可能无法实现全面接种。有些国家并没有把疫苗接种作为头等大事,尤其是年轻人占人口比例较大,而且感染病例不是特别多的那些国家。

这种情况会带来的问题是,病毒可以在这些国家残存、变异、迁徙、繁衍,对疫苗有免疫力的病毒得以自由演变。

当然,情况并非完全悲观。疫苗生产速度越来越快,但让全球77亿人都接种疫苗,这个规模和挑战之大,也确实开历史先河。

德马雷斯认为,各国政府应该开诚布公地告诉本国民众,什么是可能的,什么是不可能的。 这不是一件容易的事。如果事实上全面普及接种需要几年时间,谁能轻易说出这句话?

数据新闻:贝琦·戴尔(Becky Dale)、纳索斯·斯泰利亚诺(Nassos Stylianou)

 
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向问天

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欧洲的药厂也在为供应链问题纠结。近期出口禁令的威胁来自欧盟,而不是美国。

德马雷斯说:“只要欧洲市场疫苗供应短缺,我认为加拿大大量进口疫苗几乎没有可能。”

也有些国家的情况比预期的要好。比如塞尔维亚的疫苗接种比例在欧盟名列前茅,原因除了群体接种计划效率高,还得益于“疫苗外交” — 中国和俄国为了在东欧扩大各自的影响展开的角力。


为什么中国和俄罗斯出口疫苗就是搞疫苗外交扩大影响力,而美国和英国出口疫苗就是施舍和动不动就威胁断供拉仇恨?

问题到底出在哪里?
 

lindamy

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为什么中国和俄罗斯出口疫苗就是搞疫苗外交扩大影响力,而美国和英国出口疫苗就是施舍和动不动就威胁断供拉仇恨?

问题到底出在哪里?
有位年逾古稀的德国医生,自己符合打疫苗的标准,冒险为年迈体弱的妻子偷了一只疫苗,现在等待判决,令人伤感。

欧洲唯一疫苗充足的国家是塞尔维亚,现在一些国家在经营疫苗旅游团,3周以上,以便可以打两针。

极个别国家允许给外国游客打,一般只能优先本国公民。

疫苗是现在世界上最热门的抢手货。各国各种外交手段:抢。
 

向问天

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有位年逾古稀的德国医生,自己符合打疫苗的标准,冒险为年迈体弱的妻子偷了一只疫苗,现在等待判决,令人伤感。

欧洲唯一疫苗充足的国家是塞尔维亚,现在一些国家在经营疫苗旅游团,3周以上,以便可以打两针。

极个别国家允许给外国游客打,一般只能优先本国公民。

疫苗是现在世界上最热门的抢手货。各国各种外交手段:抢。



你没有回答我的问题。
 

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总理杜鲁多已表示,所有有意愿的加拿大人可以在今年9月底之前打上疫苗。但是有51%的受访者对此表示怀疑,44%的人表示有信心。

目前,加拿大在全球20多个国家的疫苗接种榜单上排名第17位,落后于罗马尼亚,优于中国和俄罗斯。

过去一个多月,辉瑞(Pfizer-BioNTech)向加拿大交付的疫苗数量减少了三分之二,主要是由于其在比利时的工厂扩建,不过近日疫苗交货已经恢复。

Moderna也在2月初减少了向加拿大交付的疫苗数量,该公司称问题是其在瑞士的厂家Lonza增产慢于预期。Moderna下一批2月22日疫苗交货的数量将只有预期的三分之二。

加拿大人回避中国、俄罗斯的疫苗

民调中,只有五分之一的受访者认为,加拿大应该考虑批准俄罗斯和中国研发的疫苗。

本月初,德国对俄罗斯的Sputnik V疫苗表示支持。德国总理默克尔表示,会考虑提供生产设施,以加快欧盟的疫苗接种。
 

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加拿大人回避中国、俄罗斯的疫苗

民调中,只有五分之一的受访者认为,加拿大应该考虑批准俄罗斯和中国研发的疫苗。


因为中国疫苗对变异病毒也有效,所以加拿大不要?


Reuters

WED FEB 17, 2021 / 12:49 PM EST

Sinovac vaccine works on UK, South African variants - Brazil institute​

Leonardo Benassatto

Photo


FILE PHOTO: A worker performs a quality check in the packaging facility of Chinese vaccine maker Sinovac Biotech, developing an experimental coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine, during a government-organized media tour in Beijing, China, September 24, 2020.

REUTERS/THOMAS PETER/FILE PHOTO
SERRANA, Brazil (Reuters) -

The COVID-19 vaccine developed by China’s Sinovac Biotech is effective against the UK and South African variants, the vaccine's Brazilian partner said on Wednesday, citing test results in Chinese trials.

"We have tested this vaccine in China against the English and the South African variants, with good results," said Dimas Covas, head of the Butantan biomedical center in Sao Paulo which lead domestic trials of the Chinese vaccine and is supplying doses to Brazil's Health Ministry.

Covas did not give any more details on exactly how effective the vaccine proved against these strains.

Butantan is also testing the vaccine, known as CoronaVac, against the Brazilian variant of the virus which appeared in the city of Manaus, he said.

"Soon we will have the results and we are very positive it will do the job," Covas said.

Covas was speaking at a news conference in the small city of Serrana, in the interior of Sao Paulo state, where Butantan began on Wednesday a mass vaccination campaign aimed at inoculating the entire adult population against COVID-19 to test whether it lowers the infection rate.

Covas said he expects CoronaVac to have an advantage over other vaccines due to the technology it uses - an inactivated version of a coronavirus strain.

The efficacy of the Chinese vaccine against the Brazilian strain in particular will be vital to Brazil. The government has secured 100 million doses and made the vaccine a centerpiece of its inoculation campaign.

Covas' comments come as several cities in Brazil, including state capitals of Rio, Salvador and Cuiaba have suspended new vaccinations as they ran out of doses.
 

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民调中,只有五分之一的受访者认为,加拿大应该考虑批准俄罗斯和中国研发的疫苗。



加拿大政府能不能满足五分之一愿意用中国疫苗的人的愿望?

那也是800万人呢!
 

peterchen

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The first clinics will be located in the high-risk neighbourhoods of Ledbury, Heron Gate, Ridgemont, Emerald Woods, Sawmill Creek, and Riverview.


More details on how to book an appointment will be made available this coming Monday, March 1.

These areas are being targeted first because of a limited supply of vaccine doses and because they are experiencing higher rates of COVID-19 transmission, Emergency and Protective Services General Manager Anthony Di Monte said.

Broader population of seniors to receive vaccines later in March and into the summer

Vaccinations for the broader community of adults 80 and older will begin later in March, pending vaccine supply. Those who do not live in high-risk areas will be notified about when and where they can receive their vaccine through several channels. The City and Ottawa Public Health are working on a strategy to reach out to this group, including advertisements, public service announcements, and media appearances.

The city estimates it will need 88,000 doses to vaccinate all adults 80 and older who want a vaccine.

Provincial officials announced Wednesday that an online portal for booking vaccine appointments would be launched March 15. Once the platform is launched, people over the age 80 in Ontario can begin booking their appointments first. People over the age of 75 will be able to book starting in April and in May, people over the age of 70 will have access. In June, people aged 65 and over will be able to book an appointment. People over the age of 60 can start booking in July.

Vaccine appointments in Ontario


The city's vaccination efforts through January and February were largely focused on long-term care homes and retirement homes. Work is now underway to inoculate first responders, with shots being given to paramedics and firefighters already.

Data from Ottawa Public Health show 91 per cent of long-term care home residents had received both required vaccine doses as of Feb. 14 and 84 per cent of retirement home residents had received their first shot as of Feb. 21. The city said in a memo that it would complete first doses in retirement homes by the end of the day Tuesday.

More than 48,000 COVID-19 vaccine doses have been administered in Ottawa since mid-December. Ottawa has received 57,820 doses of vaccine to date.
 

lindamy

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CPPIB CEO Mark Machin steps down after getting COVID-19 vaccine in UAE​

By Staff Reuters
Posted February 26, 2021 8:38 am
Updated February 26, 2021 8:48 am
Click to play video '‘I’m disgusted’ says Indigenous services minister after B.C. couple accused of flying to Yukon to jump vaccine queue'



Indigenous services minister Marc Miller on Wednesday commented on the couple from British Columbia who are accused of flying to the Yukon to jump the COVID-19 vaccine queue, saying he was "disgusted" by it and added that "it's dumb, it's wrong, it's unfair." – Jan 27, 2021

Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (CPPIB) said on Friday Mark Machin had stepped down as CEO of the country’s largest pension fund after disclosing he recently traveled to the United Arab Emirates where he arranged to be vaccinated against COVID-19.

CPPIB said it had accepted Machin’s resignation and appointed John Graham as chief executive officer.

READ MORE: Head of Canada Pension Plan board received COVID-19 vaccine in Dubai: reports

Canada’s Ministry of Finance on Thursday called a media report about Machin traveling to the Middle East and receiving a COVID-19 vaccination “very troubling”.

Machin was not immediately available for comment.

Machin, 54, received Pfizer’s vaccine shot after arriving in the UAE with his partner this month, the Wall Street Journal reported on Thursday, citing people familiar with the matter.

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Machin was named president and CEO in June 2016, according to the pension fund’s website.

 
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ottawa_tj

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CPPIB CEO Mark Machin steps down after getting COVID-19 vaccine in UAE​

By Staff Reuters
Posted February 26, 2021 8:38 am
Updated February 26, 2021 8:48 am
Click to play video '‘I’m disgusted’ says Indigenous services minister after B.C. couple accused of flying to Yukon to jump vaccine queue''‘I’m disgusted’ says Indigenous services minister after B.C. couple accused of flying to Yukon to jump vaccine queue'



Indigenous services minister Marc Miller on Wednesday commented on the couple from British Columbia who are accused of flying to the Yukon to jump the COVID-19 vaccine queue, saying he was "disgusted" by it and added that "it's dumb, it's wrong, it's unfair." – Jan 27, 2021

Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (CPPIB) said on Friday Mark Machin had stepped down as CEO of the country’s largest pension fund after disclosing he recently traveled to the United Arab Emirates where he arranged to be vaccinated against COVID-19.

CPPIB said it had accepted Machin’s resignation and appointed John Graham as chief executive officer.

READ MORE: Head of Canada Pension Plan board received COVID-19 vaccine in Dubai: reports

Canada’s Ministry of Finance on Thursday called a media report about Machin traveling to the Middle East and receiving a COVID-19 vaccination “very troubling”.
Machin was not immediately available for comment.

Machin, 54, received Pfizer’s vaccine shot after arriving in the UAE with his partner this month, the Wall Street Journal reported on Thursday, citing people familiar with the matter.
STORY CONTINUES BELOW ADVERTISEMENT

Machin was named president and CEO in June 2016, according to the pension fund’s website.


如果用的是自己的钱飞到UAE,应该鼓励啊?
 
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