中美贸易战:13轮磋商无果 改成“阶段性”方式继续磋;特朗普和刘鹤于1月15日在白宫签署第一阶段经贸协议 (附中英文版本)

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  • 时事大家谈:北京至今沉默,美中协议到底签与不签?
    美国总统特朗普在2019年的最后一天宣布,美中两国将在2020年1月15日签署第一阶段协议。一个星期过去了,北京沉默不语。此前香港南华早报披露,中国国务院副总理刘鹤将率领中方代表团于1月4日开始访问华盛顿,签署第一阶段贸易协议,但刘鹤显然并未成行。美国贸易代表莱特希泽曾在美中宣布达成协议的当天表示,双方计划于2020年1月的第一个星期签署协议,现在看来这个计划不可能实现了。美中协议最后卡在哪里?为什么看起来像是特朗普急而习近平不急?这项交易有没有最后破局的可能?

    主持:许波 嘉宾:北京之春荣誉主编胡平;中国经济学者胡星斗
    https://www.voachinese.com/a/voaweishi-20200106-voaio-beijing-does-not-respond-to-trump--call/5233776.html
    南华早报说刘鹤13日赴美。
     

    lindamy

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    https://www.wenxuecity.com/news/2020/01/07/9002191.html

    中美协议最后时刻现变数:北京拒绝川普核心诉求(图)
    文章来源: 多维 于 2020-01-07 10:34:01 - 新闻取自各大新闻媒体,新闻内容并不代表本网立场!

    中国大陆媒体“财新网”2020年1月7日报道,中国农业部副部长韩俊在接受采访时表示,中方不会为了满足美方要求的农产品采购量而提高针对大米、小麦和玉米等农产品的年度进口配额。



    知情人士透露,中国贸易代表团暂定于1月13日赴美并于15日同美方签署第一阶段贸易协议,北京仍计划派中国最高谈判代表、国务院副总理刘鹤签署协议。(VCG)

    中美两国于2019年12月就两国第一阶段贸易谈判达成协议,中方同意增加进口包括农产品在内的美国产品,而美国则以此为交换保留一部分即将对中国商品加征的关税并降低部分中国进口产品的关税率。

    美国总统特朗普(Donald Trump)曾表示,中国在未来两年内将会增加美国农产品进口总量,购买规模将比贸易战前增加一倍。

    路透社曾预测中国或许会考虑调整进口配额,例如以1%左右的低关税扩大农产品进口配额,但韩俊明确表示不存在这种可能性,他特别指出,“这是全球配额,我们不会为了一个国家调整”。

    根据中国国家发改委此前公布的信息,中国2020年粮食进口配额及分配同上年无变化。小麦配额963.6万吨,其中90%为国营贸易配额;玉米配额720万吨,其中60%为国营贸易配额;大米配额532万吨,50%为国营贸易配额。

    韩国《朝鲜日报》2020年1月7日报道指出,可以看到,中美双方在第一阶段贸易协议签署前的“拉锯战”不会结束,双方不会就核心利益关切轻易做出让步,因此双方能否顺利签署贸易协议仍是一个未知数。

    但特朗普则不断强调他会于1月15日同中方代表签署协议,中国官方则始终没有任何表态。韩国news1网站认为特朗普的“高调行事”无非想借此向北京施压,迫使北京适应其要求迅速签署协议,并将此作为其为数不多的政绩以参加2020年美国总统大选。但北京十分清楚特朗普的意图,不仅不会轻易宣布同美方签署贸易协议,连事关特朗普关键选票的农业问题也不会轻易松口。
     

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    美国财政部13日宣布取消对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定。

    短短5个月时间,这标签就撕下来了。
     
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    不是说好的15日第一阶段贸易协议签字么,咋没动静啊。
     

    qiluren

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    什么人赶紧去给村长要一张站票!
    没有多大新闻,该签了。签完字的时候,床铺说“呀,忘了加拿大的事了,下次再说吧!”
     

    woow

    吓人也看,坚持把戏看完,,,(⌒▽⌒)
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    看看热闹
     

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    中美签署第一阶段经贸协议
    2020-01-16 12:36:30 来源: 新华网

    当地时间1月15日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤与美国总统特朗普在华盛顿白宫东厅共同签署协议文本。这是刘鹤与特朗普展示协议文本。新华社记者 王迎 摄

    新华社华盛顿1月15日电(记者周效政 孙丁 刘晨)当地时间1月15日,美国总统特朗普在白宫椭圆形办公室会见中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤,双方共同出席中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式。

    刘鹤首先转达习近平主席致特朗普总统的口信。习近平在口信中指出,正如我在去年12月20日同你通话时指出,中美达成第一阶段经贸协议,有利于中美两国,有利于世界。这也说明,中美双方完全可以在平等和相互尊重的基础上,通过对话磋商找到有关问题的妥善处理和有效解决办法。下一步,双方要把协议落到实处,发挥积极效应,推动中美经贸合作取得更大进展。保持中美关系健康稳定发展,符合双方利益,需要双方共同作出努力。本着这一精神,希望美方公平对待中国企业正常经贸和投资活动,支持两国企业、科研机构、学校开展合作,促进中美互信与合作。中方愿与美方相向而行。我愿与你保持密切联系,相信在我们共同引领下,中美关系在新的一年能够给两国人民带来更多利益和实惠。再过几天就是中国农历春节了。我和我的夫人彭丽媛祝总统先生、梅拉尼娅女士和家人新春快乐、诸事顺遂。

    特朗普感谢习近平主席的口信,并请刘鹤转达他和夫人梅拉尼娅女士对习近平主席、彭丽媛教授和中国人民的亲切问候和新春祝福。

    刘鹤在协议签署仪式上表示,作为国际事务中负有重要责任的两个伟大国家,正视分歧、管控分歧,达成第一阶段经贸协议,有利于中国,有利于美国,有利于世界。这是一份互利共赢的协议,能够稳定全球经济发展,促进世界和平与繁荣,符合两国生产者、消费者和投资者的利益。同时,协议不针对也不影响第三方的合法权益,符合世贸组织规则。

    刘鹤指出,中美在平等和相互尊重基础上达成协议,验证了中国人常说的一句话:困难并不可怕,办法总比困难多。协议签署后,希望双方共同努力,秉持平等和相互尊重的原则,严格遵守协议约定,照顾彼此核心关切,努力落实好协议,这既是当务之急,也是对未来双边经贸关系发展具有重要作用的行动。

    刘鹤表示,中国经济正在由高速增长转向高质量发展阶段,巨大规模的国内市场正在形成。欢迎包括美国在内的世界各国投资者到中国投资,中方愿不断扩大来自各国优质产品的进口。中国对外开放的大门必将越开越大。

    刘鹤强调,世界正处于重要的历史性十字路口,我们面临如何推动大国合作和国际合作的重大战略性选择。中美双方既有巨大的共同利益,又面临诸多共同挑战,有加强合作的客观需要。习近平主席指出,中美双方有一千条理由把两国关系搞好,没有一条理由把中美关系搞坏。双方必须求同存异,找到一条合作共赢的道路,这对中国、对美国、对世界都有十分重要意义。实践已经证明,并将再次证明,中美合则两利,斗则俱伤,合作是唯一正确的出路。我们要从人类和平与发展的大局出发,为了人类共同的命运,坚持平等协商、相互尊重,推动以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系发展。

    特朗普表示,美中第一阶段经贸协议的签署迈出了具有里程碑意义的一步,对美国、中国和整个世界都是一件好事。中国是一个伟大的国家。我非常重视中美两国的双边关系,非常敬佩习近平主席的非凡睿智和领导力。美中关系十分重要,两国正在经贸及其他广泛领域开展密切合作,这有利于促进世界的和平与繁荣。美国期待与中国开展更多领域的合作。我期待在不久的将来再次访问中国。
    美方官员、中国代表团全体成员以及美国各界代表约300人出席签署仪式。

    (国际)(5)中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在华盛顿举行
      当地时间1月15日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤与美国总统特朗普在美国首都华盛顿白宫东厅共同签署协议文本。当天,中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在白宫东厅举行。新华社记者 王迎 摄

    (国际)(2)中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在华盛顿举行
      当地时间1月15日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤与美国总统特朗普在美国首都华盛顿白宫东厅共同签署协议文本。当天,中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在白宫东厅举行。新华社记者 王迎 摄


    (国际)(3)中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在华盛顿举行
    当地时间1月15日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤与美国总统特朗普在美国首都华盛顿白宫东厅举行的中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式上握手。当天,中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在白宫东厅举行。新华社记者 王迎 摄


    (国际)(4)中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在华盛顿举行
    当地时间1月15日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤与美国总统特朗普在华盛顿白宫东厅共同签署协议文本。这是刘鹤与特朗普展示协议文本。新华社记者 李木子 摄


      当地时间1月15日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤与美国总统特朗普在美国首都华盛顿白宫东厅共同签署协议文本。当天,中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在白宫东厅举行。新华社记者 刘杰 摄

    当地时间1月15日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤与美国总统特朗普在美国首都华盛顿出席中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式后离开白宫东厅。当天,中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式在白宫东厅举行。新华社记者 刘杰 摄
     
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    qiluren

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    直接用自己的印章往上盖就行了,或者是像杨白劳一样按一个中指。
     

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    1579149523368.png

    President Trump’s long-awaited trade deal with China includes some significant changes to the economic relationship between the world’s largest economies.

    The agreement signed Wednesday includes some victories for Mr. Trump: China has committed to buy an additional $200 billion of American goods and services by 2021 and crack down on business practices that the Trump administration has criticized. But text of the accord does not provide enough information to determine how it will work in practice, and it is unclear whether China will interpret it differently than the United States.


    China’s $200 billion shopping list includes agricultural products and energy exports
    PAGE 6-1
    The Parties recognize that the United States produces and can supply high-quality, competitively priced goods and services, while China needs to increase the importation of quality and affordable goods and services to satisfy the increasing demand from Chinese consumers.
    Mr. Trump said his deal is a boon for farmers, who have been among the hardest hit by the trade war. The deal includes significant commitments from China to buy agricultural products, as well as airplanes, pharmaceuticals and oil and gas.

    China’s commitment to purchase additional American exports is based on 2017 levels, and includes $52.4 billion of energy exports, $32 billion of agricultural commodities, $77.7 billion of manufactured goods and $37.9 billion of services.

    Although American businesses and farmers will be pleased by those commitments, China is only agreeing to make purchases for the next two years and is vague about what happens after. The agreement says the countries “project that the trajectory” of increased purchases would continue through 2025. The shopping list also leaves several open questions: What happens to China’s existing contracts with other countries for products like soybeans? Will the purchases distort commodities markets?

    China’s vice premier, Liu He, who signed the deal with Mr. Trump at the White House on Wednesday, said Chinese businesses will buy American goods and services “based on the market demand in China,” suggesting Beijing may not view the targets as so ironclad.

    While many farmers would welcome more Chinese purchases of their products, some experts warned that Mr. Trump’s deal could make them more vulnerable in the longer run.

    “Of most concern, the deal turns Chinese purchases of U.S. agriculture from a constant to an uncertain variable that is now subject to the instability of U.S.-China relations,” Evan S. Medeiros, a Georgetown University professor who was senior Asia director in the Obama White House, said in an email. “That’s a devastating shift for U.S. farmers.”

    Changes could help dairy farmers, beef producers and other agricultural groups
    Page 3-1
    Recognizing the importance of their agriculture sectors, of ensuring safe and reliable supplies of food and agricultural products, and of helping to meet the demand of the two countries’ peoples for food and agricultural products, [the Parties] intend to intensify cooperation in agriculture, to expand each Party’s market for food and agricultural products, and to promote the growth of trade in food and agricultural products.
    In what is arguably the most robust part of the accord, China is committing to some big changes to its agricultural policy. The country will get rid of certain health standards that Chinese officials have used to block a variety of American agricultural goods.

    Beijing is also relaxing licensing, inspection and registration rules that the United States has viewed as barriers to trade. The changes will affect products including meat, poultry, pet food, seafood, animal feed, baby formula, dairy and biotech.

    Darci Vetter, a former agriculture negotiator for the Obama administration, said the section on agriculture “addressed a number of longstanding irritants” that have stopped shipments of milk, chicken, beef and pork.

    Ms. Vetter said that the agreement in this area was surprisingly reciprocal, granting concessions that China was seeking to ensure its exports are treated more fairly in the United States.

    The deal aims to stamp out theft of intellectual property
    PAGE 1-1:
    The Parties shall ensure fair, adequate, and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Each Party shall ensure fair and equitable market access to persons of the other Party that rely upon intellectual property protection.
    The theft of intellectual property was one of the Trump administration’s main reasons for starting a confrontation with China. Previous administrations have tried to get China to crack down on this practice with limited success.

    Mr. Trump’s agreement seeks to make it easier to identify and punish intellectual property theft and counterfeiting. For instance, it adds several provisions to protect confidential information considered to be trade secrets, which American businesses say are not well protected under Chinese law. Those protections also include “electronic intrusions,” a reference to hacking of computer systems.

    The pharmaceutical industry appears to have secured significant gains, including commitments by the Chinese government to do more to protect patent owners from copycats.

    The deal also contains commitments, at least on paper, to halt the forced transfer of American technology to Chinese competitors. Companies have long complained that in order to do business in China, they had to hand over valuable technology and trade secrets. China has pledged not to require such transfers, including when companies apply for certain licenses or government approvals.

    China also pledged not to “support or direct” acquisitions and investment by Chinese companies of foreign technology in “industries targeted by its industrial plans that create distortion.” The provision is vaguely worded, but American officials say it is targeted at addressing the issues created by industrial plans like Made in China 2025.

    Getting China to comply with the deal could be hard
    PAGE 7-1
    To ensure prompt and effective implementation of this Agreement, the Parties establish the following Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Arrangement (the “Arrangement”).
    Among the biggest questions going in to the negotiations with China was how any agreement would be enforced. Having watched previous agreements with China fail to live up to their promise, many American experts and business executives were skeptical that the Trump administration could get China to keep the commitments it makes.

    Unlike other trade deals, which typically refer disputes to a neutral third party, the United States and China have decided to work out any issues on their own. The deal creates something called the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Offices to receive and evaluate complaints. The deal also includes an appeals process where issues can be elevated from midlevel officials all the way up to the offices of the United States trade representative and the vice premier of China.

    If those talks can’t resolve the dispute, more tariffs will go into effect. Under such a scenario, the other party promises not to retaliate with tariffs of its own. If they do, either country can give written notice and withdraw from the deal — quickly returning the two countries to a trade war scenario.

    Wall Street’s gains appear incremental and it is unclear if the deal will be a boon for all financial firms
    PAGE 4-1
    The Parties shall work constructively to provide fair, effective, and nondiscriminatory market access for each other’s services and services suppliers. To that end, the Parties shall take specific actions beginning with the actions set forth in this Chapter with respect to the financial services sector.
    The agreement gives the United States some gains in financial services, including in electronic payments, securities, fund management and insurance, but many of these changes were already in the works. In an attempt to defuse tension with the Trump administration, China had already moved in 2017 to give foreign firms more sway in its financial sector, and American banks and other firms have been taking majority stakes in Chinese ventures.

    For years, credit card companies Visa, Mastercard and American Express sought entry into China. In the deal, China agreed to accept license applications by these companies, but it did not automatically grant them access to its market. Even if China does approve their applications, it is not clear that those businesses would make many inroads in the country’s advanced electronic payment system, which is dominated by domestic companies.

    China made pledges to be more transparent in currency markets, but many of its promises are in line with earlier commitments
    PAGE 5-1
    The Parties shall refrain from competitive devaluations and not target exchange rates for competitive purposes, including through large-scale, persistent, one-sided intervention in exchange markets.
    Mr. Trump has long been a critic of China’s currency policy, arguing that it weakens the renminbi to achieve a competitive advantage for its exports. Last year the Trump administration labeled China a currency manipulator, before removing the tag this week as a result of China’s new currency commitments.

    The country has pledged not to competitively devalue its currency and has promised to be more transparent about its interventions in foreign exchange markets.

    To accomplish this, China has agreed to make public disclosures about its foreign exchange reserves and its quarterly imports of goods and services, among other things. However, much of what China is agreeing to do is in line with commitments it has already made through the Group of 20 and its obligations to the International Monetary Fund.

    Brad Setser, an economist at the Council on Foreign Relations, said that China is primarily promising things that it already does and that it will continue to be circumspect about its actual interventions. “Certainly it doesn’t provide the market with any new information about China’s actual currency practices,” Mr. Setser said.

    Both the American and Chinese economies have been hurt by the trade war, and this deal could provide some needed relief
    PREAMBLE
    REALIZING that it is in the interests of both countries that trade grow and that there is adherence to international norms so as to promote market-based outcomes.
    The trade war between China and the United States has weighed on the economies of both countries. The tensions appear to have sent a chill through the United States manufacturing sector. China’s exports to the United States have plunged.

    The partial truce struck Wednesday could restore some confidence, and the Chinese purchases will help some sectors of the American economy, but the pact preserves the bulk of the tariffs on $360 billion of goods from China. Administration officials have said that they will not lift those tariffs until the countries manage to agree to a phase 2 agreement. Prolonged strains in the relationship could prompt American firms to spend less in China and vice versa.

    The agreement does not address China’s subsidies for favored industries, cybersecurity and other issues

    The United States has long had concerns about China’s use of industrial subsidies and state-owned enterprises to build up and dominate crucial industries, like steel and solar panels. But China rebuffed talks on these subjects, and the deal does not address such policies. Other areas that were left out include cybersecurity and Chinese control over how companies manage data storage and cloud computing.

    American officials say they will press China to curtail its use of subsidies in the next round of negotiations. The United States is also now working with the European Union and Japan to tackle Chinese subsidies at the World Trade Organization.

     

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    Winner: Donald Trump
    Some critics say there is little substance, but the signing offers an opportunity for US President Donald Trump to put the trade war behind him and claim an achievement heading into the 2020 presidential election.

    That may be a relief: Polls show that most Americans agree with the president that China trades unfairly, but they generally support free trade and oppose tariffs. Indeed, Republicans lost several congressional seats in 2018 - a change economists have linked to the trade war.

    Winner: President Xi Jinping
    China appears set to emerge from the signing having agreed to terms it offered early in the process, including loosening market access to US financial and car firms. In many cases, companies from other countries are already benefiting from the changes.

    While President Xi can claim he did not simply bow to America's demands, that doesn't mean the Chinese are celebrating. The Federal Reserve estimates that China's economy has taken a 0.25% hit, as US demand for its goods fell by about a third.

    Loser: American companies and consumers

    Tariff protest

    The US has collected more than $40bn in new tariffs

    The new deal halves tariff rates on $120bn worth of goods, but most of the higher duties - which affect another $360bn of Chinese goods and more than $100bn worth of US exports - remain in place. And that's bad news for the American public.

    Economists have found that the costs - more than $40bn so far - are being borne entirely by US companies and consumers. And that figure does not even try to measure lost business due to retaliation.

    Overall, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that tariff-related uncertainty and costs have shaved 0.3% off of US economic growth, while reducing household income by an average of $580 since 2018.

    The CBO's estimates take into account all new tariffs imposed since January 2018 - not just those involving China - but analysts say a more limited look would yield similar findings.

    Loser: Farmers and manufacturers

    a worker makes a wheel assembly

    Manufacturers exposed to tariffs have been hurt

    The new deal commits China to boost purchases in manufacturing, services, agriculture and energy from 2017 levels by $200bn over two years.

    Mr Trump has said that could include as $50bn worth of agricultural goods a year.

    But the official figures are lower, analysts are sceptical those are attainable and China has said the purchases will depend on market demand. So far, the primary effect on business has been pain.

    Farmers, who have been targeted by China's tariffs, have seen bankruptcies soar, prompting a $28bn federal bailout.

    Among manufacturers, the Federal Reserve has found employment losses, stemming from the higher import costs and China's retaliation.

    Over the long-term, American firms may reroute supply chains away from China to avoid the tariffs - but that's an expensive prospect.

    Winners: Taiwan/Vietnam/Mexico

    Ho Chi Minh City in southern Vietnam

    Ho Chi Minh City in southern Vietnam, the country's main manufacturing region

    Globally, economists estimate that the trade war will shave more than 0.5% off of growth. But some countries have benefited from the fight, which redirected an estimated $165bn in trade.

    Analysts at Nomura identified Vietnam as the country that would gain the most, while the UN found that Taiwan, Mexico and Vietnam saw US orders ramp up last year.

    The Fed found that the increased American imports boosted Mexico's economic growth by just over 0.2%,

    Some of those arrangements are likely to stick, even with a deal.

    Loser: Washington China critics

    Peter Navarro

    Trump advisor Peter Navarro has pushed for a tough stance on China

    The US has said that China has agreed to new protections for intellectual property, including lowering the threshold for criminal prosecution and increasing penalties. Critically, the two sides say they have agreed to a way to resolve such disputes.

    Those were among the issues that ostensibly triggered the trade war.

    But analysts say it's not clear if the new commitments are any different from promises that China has made before. And the new deal does not address some of America's chief complaints about China's trade practices - such as the subsidies it provides to certain industries.

    The White House has said it will tackle additional issues in a second, "phase two" deal but analysts say they don't expect anything concrete anytime soon. The administration has also discussed how to address the subsidies with Japan and Europe.

     

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    坚持平等和相互尊重原则 解决双方关切 实现互利共赢
    ——刘鹤就中美签署第一阶段经贸协议答记者问

    2020-01-16 12:55:50 来源: 新华网

    新华社华盛顿1月15日电(记者杨士龙、兴越、许缘)中美两国1月15日在美国首都华盛顿正式签署第一阶段经贸协议后,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤向部分中方媒体通报了协议签署的有关情况并回答记者提问。以下是现场实录。

    刘鹤:今天中午,中美两国正式签署了中美第一阶段经贸协议。双方达成的协议,符合WTO规则和市场原则,体现了中美经贸合作互利共赢的本质,这有利于中国,有利于美国,有利于全世界。这是一份能够稳定预期和促进繁荣的协议,符合全球生产者、消费者和投资者的利益。这不仅是一份经济协议,更关系到世界和平与繁荣。

    协议签署后,中方将同美方共同努力,坚持平等和相互尊重的原则,遵守协议约定,努力落实好协议相关内容。同时,双方应照顾彼此的核心关切,多做有利于双边经贸发展和经济金融稳定的事情。

    中美关系是最重要的双边关系之一。两国虽然在政治制度、意识形态等方面存在差异,但还是有很多共同利益,能够管控分歧,找到合作共赢的办法。从这次磋商中我深刻感受到,目前国际社会已经形成了普遍共识,希望中美双方妥善解决分歧,两国人民也强烈要求处理好这些问题。习近平主席指出,我们有一千条理由把中美关系搞好,没有一条理由把中美关系搞坏。中美合则两利,斗则俱伤,合作是唯一正确的选择,在新的时代尤其如此。当前我们所处的国际国内形势,比过去更为复杂,需要双方秉持更好的意愿,以更具战略性的眼光、更高超的政治智慧和更耐心的态度,解决好共同面临的问题。我们要按照两国元首确定的原则精神,秉持互利共赢的原则,增进理解、加强合作,努力发展好以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系,始终把握历史前进的正确方向。

    当前中国经济保持总体稳定态势,结构调整取得新进展,更加依靠内需特别是消费需求驱动,更加依靠创新和劳动生产率提高驱动,经济增长对债务的依赖降低,经济增长的内生动力稳步提升。我们坚持宏观政策要稳、微观政策要活、社会政策要托底的政策框架,不断提高宏观调控的前瞻性、针对性、有效性。我们深入推进改革开放,推动国企市场化改革,完善现代企业制度,促进多种所有制经济公平竞争、共同发展;坚持两个“毫不动摇”,支持民营经济发展,尊重企业家精神,保护产权,维护良好的营商环境;进一步扩大开放,以开放促改革、促发展。2020年是实现全面建成小康社会目标和“十三五”规划收官之年,我相信,中国经济发展前景一定会更加光明。中国的发展也会给包括美国在内的世界各国提供更多投资和增长的机会。

    问:可否请您介绍一下这份协议的主要内容?

    答:中美双方在平等和相互尊重原则的基础上,达成中美第一阶段经贸协议。这份协议在相当程度上解决了双方关切,实现了互利共赢。主要体现在三个方面:一是深化贸易领域双向合作,扩大双方在农产品、制成品、能源、服务业等领域的贸易规模,以更好地满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要。二是进一步放宽市场准入,包括扩大金融领域双向开放,为两国企业提供更多市场机遇。三是持续优化营商环境,双方承诺加大知识产权保护力度,鼓励基于自愿和市场条件的技术合作等,以更好地促进公平竞争,激发市场主体的创新与发展活力。同时,双方将建立双边评估和争端解决安排,及时有效解决经贸分歧。在关税退坡问题上,美方承诺取消部分对华产品加征关税,实现加征关税由升到降的转变。

    问:您如何评价这份协议?

    答:作为世界上前两大经济体和在国际事务中负有重要责任的两个大国,中美双方从大局出发,达成第一阶段经贸协议,有利于中国,有利于美国,有利于全世界。从经济上看,这份协议有助于缓和当前贸易摩擦紧张局面,消除市场不确定性,是一份能够稳定预期、增强信心、创造机遇、促进繁荣的协议。从政治上看,协议的达成有利于维护中美整体关系的稳定健康发展,营造良好的国际环境,促进世界的和平与发展。正因如此,中美达成协议的消息一经公布,立即受到中美两国和国际社会、金融市场的普遍欢迎,为世界经济的稳定与发展贡献了正能量。

    问:今年中国将实现全面建成小康社会目标,经济从高速增长转向高质量增长,您如何看待当前中国经济形势?中国经济的长期增长态势如何,有何特征?

    答:当前,中国经济运行总体平稳,预计2019年经济增长在6%以上,在世界主要经济体中位居前列。现在中国经济总量接近100万亿元人民币,一年的经济增量大约1万亿美元,差不多相当于一个中等国家的经济规模。同时,就业、物价、国际收支等主要宏观指标均处于合理区间,转型升级和结构调整扎实推进。

    今年,中国要实现全面建成小康社会和“十三五”规划圆满收官。从近两个月的边际变化看,PMI、工业增加值和企业效益等指标出现了积极变化,1月份的一些高频数据也显示,中国经济比预期的要好。当前,中国经济正在实现再平衡,更加依靠内需特别是消费需求驱动,更加依靠创新和劳动生产率提高驱动,经济增长对债务的依赖降低,经济增长的内生动力稳步提升。我们有超大规模市场优势、庞大的中等收入群体,通过深化供给侧结构性改革和转型升级,中国经济将表现得更好。中国经济正在按照高质量发展的方向前进,我们对今年的经济走势保持乐观,对中国经济的长期发展更是充满信心。中国将继续通过自身稳定发展为全球经济做出贡献。

    问:请您简要谈谈当前中国改革开放的重点,您怎么看待这份协议与中国继续扩大开放的关系?

    答:从经济体制改革的角度讲,改革就是要在坚持社会主义制度的前提下,充分发挥市场对资源配置的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用。改革主要集中在以下几个方面:一是更加注重发挥市场微观主体的活力,深化国企改革,促进民营经济发展。二是强化市场规则,促进公平竞争。三是进一步转变政府职能,政府应从微观事务中解脱出来,更好进行宏观经济管理,提供公共服务。四是推进社会领域改革,坚持完善符合中国国情的社会保障体系,重视教育培训,提升人力资本。

    对外开放是中国的基本国策,我们将扩大开放,主要包括:一是有序扩大市场准入。目前制造业领域的开放已到了相当程度,下一步的重点在现代服务业、农业、基础设施等领域。二是对标国际良好做法,完善营商环境。使外资企业能公平参与竞争,知识产权得到有效保护。三是中国的经常项目已经全面开放,我们将在注重防控风险的前提下,稳妥有序推进资本账户开放,推动人民币区域化、国际化。四是积极参与国际经济贸易规则制定,与发展中国家和新兴市场国家紧密合作,推动世界经济秩序向更加公正合理的方向发展。

    在此,我要特别强调,中国改革开放创造了中国经济快速发展和社会长期稳定两大奇迹。成功的关键在于我们坚持中国共产党的领导,坚持社会主义制度,充分调动每个劳动者的积极性,激发市场微观主体的活力。我们将致力于为满足中国人民美好生活需要创造更好的条件。
     
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