fruits of solitude是penn的名著，汉语译的颇为精当，隐思录。开篇第一段这么写的：it is admirable to consider how many millions of people come into, and go out of the world, ignorant of themselves, and of the world they have lived in.
skepticism有个argument，说的是it is posssible that i am dreaming right now.我们常看见的一切都是幻觉，一辈子一场梦其实都是这个提法的变体。笛卡尔进而提出了i think，therefore i am。笛卡尔是法国人。所以你要知道montreal的人为什么不爱说英语。现代哲学的创始人就是说法语的，他们有那么伟大的哲学家，文学家，还有拿破仑这样的军事家，大革命那样影响人类进程的历史事件。
隐思录第九段： it were happy if we studied nature more in natural things; and acted according to nature; whose rules are few, plain and most reasonable. 日月盈仄，辰宿列张，都是自然之理。在这个始终流变的世界之中，我们都不过是一粒微尘。抗拒这个潮流仅仅是我们美好的愿望。
歌德the sonnet这么写的：to practice a revived usage of art is a sacred duty which we impose upon you.
So that however these may disport themselves, the work in the end will have achieved perfection.
I too should like to mould the best inspiration of my feelings into the rhymes of artful sonnets, the bold pride of numbers in skilled language. (歌德诗选198页）
burke在on the sublime and beautiful的第五节引过一段荷马史诗。he owns, indeed, that he often gives himself some intermission from such melancholy reflections; but he observes, too, that, melancholy as they are, they give him pleasure.( burke这段真的像极了好多年前好朋友开导我的一段话）
still in short intervals of pleasing woe,
Regardful of the friendly dues i owe,
I to the glorious *, for every dear,
Indulge the tribute of a grateful tear. (Odyssey 100)
焦糖摩卡的甜度是要比普通的咖啡要甜一点的，我通常也买一个甜筒一起吃。吃冰淇淋的时候，焦糖摩卡就只剩苦味了。和普通咖啡比呢，焦糖摩卡又是甜的。这就是一个经典的哲学问题，即我们的感知，比如味觉，是mind-dependent properties。john locke试图解决这个问题。于他而言，大海并没有颜色，颜色是在我们看大海的时候被创造出来的。颜色是second property。locke认为size是第一属性，我当时看这段的时候是存疑的，size也未见得不受主观观测的影响。后面berkeley提出世界最终依赖于我们的mind。to be is to be percieved。 berkeley的观点是唯心的。
赫拉克利特的经典论述是这样的，it is not possible to step twice into the same river. It scatters and again comes together, and approaches and recedes. 宇宙中的一切都在permanent change之中，包括我们自己。
william james说了类似的话： thoughts connected as we feel them to be connected are what we mean by personal selves. Our consciousness is in constant change. ——-what i wish to lay stress on is this, that no state once gone can recur and be identical with what it was before.
流变流变，就是这么来的。像河流一样，流转变化。william james继续写道： conscious flows. A river or stream is the metaphor by which it is most naturally described.
hume在treatise on human nature中有一段这么写的：the mind is a kind of theatre, where several perceptions successfully make their appearance; pass, re-pass, glide away, and mingle in an infinity variety of postures and situations.
弗洛伊德比saussure早出生一年，他的结构主义观点同样鲜明。他用free association的方法来uncover repressed experiences，他也试图揭示unconcious mental processes。在the pschopathology of everyday life一文中，他确信：normal as well as abnormal psychic life is influenced by unconscious forces which can be used to explain such everyday occurrences as the forgetting of names and slips of the tongue.